The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB1/Her1) belongs to the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and is a key player in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration. Overexpression and mutational changes of EGFR have been identified in a variety of human cancers and the regulation of EGFR signaling plays a critical role in tumor development and progression. Due to its biological significance the EGFR signaling network is a widely used model system for the development of analytical techniques. Novel quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics approaches play an important role in the characterization of signaling pathways in a time and stimulus dependent manner. Recent studies discussed in this review provide new insights into different aspects of EGFR signal transduction, such as regulation and dynamics of its phosphorylation sites, association with interaction partners and identification of regulated phosphoproteins. Correlation of data from functional proteomics studies with results from other fields of signal transduction research by systems biology will be necessary to integrate and translate these findings into successful clinical applications.