Seeds of genetically modified (GM) peas (Pisum sativum L.) expressing the gene for α-amylase inhibitor-1 (αAI1) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Tendergreen) exhibit resistance to the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum). A proteomic analysis was carried out to compare seeds from GM pea lines expressing the bean αAI1 protein and the corresponding αAI1-free segregating lines and non-GM parental line to identify unintended alterations to the proteome of GM peas due to the introduction of the gene for αAI1. Proteomic analysis showed that in addition to the presence of αAI1, 33 other proteins were differentially accumulated in the αAI1-expressing GM lines compared with their non-GM parental line and these were grouped into five expression classes. Among these 33 proteins, only three were found to be associated with the expression of αAI1 in the GM pea lines. The accumulation of the remaining 30 proteins appears to be associated with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation events. Sixteen proteins were identified after MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis. About 56% of the identified proteins with altered accumulation in the GM pea were storage proteins including legumin, vicilin or convicilin, phaseolin, cupin and valosin-containing protein. Two proteins were uniquely expressed in the αAI1-expressing GM lines and one new protein was present in both the αAI1-expressing GM lines and their αAI1-free segregating lines, suggesting that both transgenesis and transformation events led to demonstrable changes in the proteomes of the GM lines tested.