Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is used to gain insight into the abundance and subcellular localization of cellular signaling components, the composition of molecular complexes and the regulation of signaling pathways. Multicellular organisms have evolved signaling networks and fast responses to stimuli that can be discovered and monitored by the use of advanced proteomics techniques in combination with traditional functional analysis. Plants are multicellular organisms and products of tightly regulated developmental programmes that respond to environmental conditions and internal cues. Plant development is orchestrated by inter- and intracellular signaling molecules, receptors and transcriptional regulators, which act in a temporal and spatially coordinated manner. Here we review recent advances in proteomics applications used to understand complex cellular signaling processes in plants.