We describe the first proteomic characterization of the radial nerve cord (RNC) of an echinoderm, the sea star Marthasterias glacialis. The combination of 2-DE with MS (MALDI-TOF/TOF) resulted in the identification of 286 proteins in the RNC. Additionally, 158 proteins were identified in the synaptosomal membranes enriched fraction after 1-DE separation. The 2-DE RNC reference map is available via the WORLD-2DPAGE Portal (http://www.expasy.ch/world-2dpage/) along with the associated protein identification data which are also available in the PRIDE database. The identified proteins constitute the first high-throughput evidence that seems to indicate that echinoderms nervous transmission relies primarily on chemical synapses which is similar to the synaptic activity in adult mammal's spinal cord. Furthermore, several homologous proteins known to participate in the regeneration events of other organisms were also identified, and thus can be used as targets for future studies aiming to understand the poorly uncharacterized regeneration capability of echinoderms. This “echinoderm missing link” is also a contribution to unravel the mystery of deuterostomian CNS evolution.