More than a decade ago our groups pioneered the analysis of serum proteins of laboratory animals with up-to-date proteomic techniques. We were, and still are, convinced that conforming animal procedures to the minimally invasive approaches typical of clinical biochemistry focuses attention on the actual conditions under which any finding arrived at on animal models of disease may eventually be applied to human patients for screening/diagnosis. We are also convinced that, besides the proteins present in trace level as a result of tissue leakage during disorders affecting specific peripheral organs, changes in the concentration of some of the major serum proteins as part of an acute-phase response may be taken as biological end-points during a number of experimental procedures. When reviewing literature data about proteomic investigations on plasma or serum of mice, we realized that not much work has been done in the direction we favor. In addition, we noticed that sometimes information about serum proteome has been coarsely treated and in a few cases even misunderstood/misused. In the following, we present current findings on serum/plasma proteome of the laboratory mouse not only under control conditions and during an experimentally induced acute-phase reaction, but also in a number of models of disease, mainly related to cancer and to metabolic disorders.