• Cell biology;
  • Hyperglycemia;
  • Monocytes;
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Hyperglycemia is widely recognized to be a potent stimulator of monocyte activity, which is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We analyzed the monocyte proteome for potential markers that would enhance the ability to screen for early inflammatory status in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), using proteomic technologies. Monocytic cells (THP-1) were primed with high glucose (HG), their protein profiles were analyzed using 2DE and the downregulated differentially expressed spots were identified using MALDI TOF/MS. We selected five proteins that were secretory in function with the help of bioinformatic programs. A predominantly downregulated protein identified as cyclophilin A (sequence coverage 98%) was further validated by immunoblotting experiments. The cellular mRNA levels of cyclophilin A in various HG-primed cells were studied using qRT-PCR assays and it was observed to decrease in a dose-dependent manner. LC-ESI-MS was used to identify this protein in the conditioned media of HG-primed cells and confirmed by Western blotting as well as ELISA. Cyclophilin A was also detected in the plasma of patients with diabetes. We conclude that cyclophilin A is secreted by monocytes in response to HG. Given the paracrine and autocrine actions of cyclophilin A, the secreted immunophilin could be significant for progression of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. Our study also provides evidence that analysis of monocyte secretome is a viable strategy for identifying candidate plasma markers in diabetes.