The physical interaction of proteins is subject to intense investigation that has revealed that proteins are assembled into large densely connected networks. In this review, we will examine how signaling pathways can be combined to form higher order protein interaction networks. By using network graph theory, these interaction networks can be further analyzed for global organization, which has revealed unique aspects of the relationships between protein networks and complex biological phenotypes. Moreover, several studies have shown that the structure and dynamics of protein networks are disturbed in complex diseases such as cancer progression. These relationships suggest a novel paradigm for treatment of complex multigenic disease where the protein interaction network is the target of therapy more so than individual molecules within the network.