Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most frequent complication of herpes zoster, and the risk of it increases with age. By comparing proteomes of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) before and after the treatment, it may be possible to identify proteins that play a role in PHN and to predict responses to various treatments. To address this issue, we enrolled eight outpatients with PHN over 55 years of age and treated them with intrathecal methylprednisolone and lidocaine four times every week, collecting CSF samples before the treatment at each visit. We used 2D DIGE to investigate differentially expressed proteins in the CSF before and after repetitive treatments individually. Of 145 differentially expressed spots, the levels of nine proteins were decreased by the treatment including lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS), and five were increased by it. The time course of alterations in the L-PGDS concentration in the CSF of each patient, detected by a pairwise and sandwich ELISA by SPR constructed here was well correlated with that by 1DE Western blots with anti-L-PGDS antibody, but was not related with that of the pain relief. The present study demonstrates that the real-time ELISA was precise and sensitive enough to measure L-PGDS in the CSF and that the steroid treatment decreased the L-PGDS concentration in CSF.