Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) papain-like protease (PLpro), a deubiquitinating enzyme, demonstrates inactivation of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 and NF-κB, reduction of IFN induction, and suppression of type I IFN signaling pathway. This study investigates cytokine expression and proteomic change induced by SARS-CoV PLpro in human promonocyte cells. PLpro significantly increased TGF-β1 mRNA expression (greater than fourfold) and protein production (greater than threefold). Proteomic analysis, Western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR assays indicated PLpro upregulating TGF-β1-associated genes: HSP27, protein disulfide isomerase A3 precursor, glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, retinal dehydrogenase 2, and glutathione transferase omega-1. PLpro-activated ubiquitin proteasome pathway via upregulation of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2–25k and proteasome subunit alpha type 5. Proteasome inhibitor MG-132 significantly reduced expression of TGF-β1 and vimentin. PLpro upregulated HSP27, linking with activation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling. Treatment with SB203580 and U0126 reduced PLpro-induced expression of TGF-β1, vimentin, and type I collagen. Results point to SARS-CoV PLpro triggering TGF-β1 production via ubiquitin proteasome, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2-mediated signaling.