Until recently, large scale proteomic investigations in the plant field have only been possible for a few model species for which the whole genome sequence had been fully determined. In contrast, for many other species with a strong economic interest as sources of human food and animal feed, as well as industrial and pharmacological molecules, little was known about their genome sequence and identifying the proteome in these species was still considered challenging. However, progress has been made as a result of several recent advances in proteomics tools, e.g. in MS technology and data search programs, and the increasing availability of genomic and cDNA sequences from various species. Moreover, next-generation sequencing technologies now make it possible to rapidly determine, at a reasonable cost, the genome or RNA sequence of species not currently considered as models, thus considerably expanding the plant sequence databases. This review will show how these advances make it possible to identify a large set of proteins, even for species for which few sequences are currently available.