In the present study, we screened proteomic and cytokine biomarkers between patients with adenomatous polyps and colorectal cancer (CRC) in order to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind turmorigenesis and tumor progression in CRC. To this end, we performed comparative proteomic analysis of plasma proteins using a combination of 2DE and MS as well as profiled differentially regulated cytokines and chemokines by multiplex bead analysis. Proteomic analysis identified 11 upregulated and 13 downregulated plasma proteins showing significantly different regulation patterns with diagnostic potential for predicting progression from adenoma to carcinoma. Some of these proteins have not previously been implicated in CRC, including upregulated leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein, hemoglobin subunit β, Ig α-2 chain C region, and complement factor B as well as downregulated afamin, zinc-α-2-glycoprotein, vitronectin, and α-1-antichymotrypsin. In addition, plasma levels of three cytokines/chemokines, including interleukin-8, interferon gamma-induced protein 10, and tumor necrosis factor α, were remarkably elevated in patients with CRC compared to those with adenomatous polyps. Although further clinical validation is required, these proteins and cytokines can be established as novel biomarkers for CRC and/or its progression from colon adenoma.