The impact of steering committees on project performance and their role in creating value from project management capabilities is not well understood. A case study analysis was chosen to analyze the configurations and specific functions of project steering committees. A measurement model for steering committee configurations was developed to enable further survey-based studies. One of the major insights resulting from the authors' interviews with project managers and senior managers was that they perceived the existence of a project steering committee only when the context was defined and clarified. Furthermore, a large variety of committee involvements was identified, concluding that steering committees per se are very rare. On the project level, the cases clearly demonstrate that committees with project steering functions play an important role in the selection, initiation, definition, and control of projects. On the organizational level, they are important to implement and maintain project management standards. Finally, the results clearly indicate that steering committees directly support project success and are instrumental for attaining value from an organization's investments in its project management system.