The crystal structure of poly(m-phenyulene isophthalamide) was determined by x-ray analysis. The triclinic cell, with a = 5.27 Å, b = 5.25 Å, c (fiber axis) = 11.3 Å, α = 111.5°, β = 111.4° and γ = 88.0° and space group P1, contains one monomeric unit. The crystal density is 1.47 g/cc. The molecules in the crystal are contracted by 1 Å per monomeric unit from the fully extended conformation, and the planes of the benzene rings and adjacent amide groups make angles of about 30°. The crystal is composed of molecular chains connected by NH···O hydrogen bonds along the a and b axes forming a “jungle gym” network structure. The low tensile modulus of this polymer as compared with that of poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) is attributed to the contracted molecular conformation.