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Vinyl esters: Low cytotoxicity monomers for the fabrication of biocompatible 3D scaffolds by lithography based additive manufacturing

Authors

  • Christian Heller,

    1. Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstraße 9-11, 1040 Vienna, Austria
    2. Division of Macromolecular Chemistry, Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/163/MC, 1060 Vienna, Austria
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  • Martin Schwentenwein,

    1. Division of Macromolecular Chemistry, Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/163/MC, 1060 Vienna, Austria
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  • Guenter Russmueller,

    1. Department of Cranio- Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
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  • Franz Varga,

    1. Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology, Vienna Hanusch-Hospital, Heinrich-Collin-Str. 30, 1140 Vienna, Austria
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  • Juergen Stampfl,

    1. Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstraße 9-11, 1040 Vienna, Austria
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  • Robert Liska

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Macromolecular Chemistry, Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/163/MC, 1060 Vienna, Austria
    • Division of Macromolecular Chemistry, Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/163/MC, 1060 Vienna, Austria
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Abstract

Lithography based additive manufacturing technologies (AMT) like stereolithography or digital light processing have become appealing methods for the fabrication of 3D cellular scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. To circumvent the use of (meth)acrylate-based photopolymers, that suffer from skin irritation and sometimes cytotoxicity, new monomers based on vinyl esters were prepared. In vitro cytotoxicity studies with osteoblast-like cells proofed that monomers based on vinyl esters are significantly less cytotoxic than (meth)acrylates. Photoreactivity was followed by photo-differential scanning calorimetry and the mechanical properties of the photocured materials were screened by nanoindentation. Conversion rates and indentation moduli between those of acrylate and methacrylate references could be observed. Furthermore, osteoblast-like cells were successfully seeded onto polymer specimens. Finally, we were able to print a 3D test structure out of a vinyl ester-based formulation by μ-SLA with a layer thickness of 50 μm. For in vivo testing of vinyl esters these 3D scaffolds were implanted into surgical defects of the distal femoral bone of adult New Zealand white rabbits. The obtained histological results approved the excellent biocompatibility of vinyl esters. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem, 2009

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