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Polymer micromixers bonded to thermoplastic films combining soft-lithography with plasma and aptes treatment processes

Authors

  • Michael Lee,

    Corresponding author
    1. Université de Lyon, Lyon1, Institut des Sciences Analytiques (ISA), UMR 5280, 5 Rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne Cedex, France
    • Université de Lyon, Lyon1, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques (LSA), UMR 5180, 43 bd du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France
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  • Maria J. Lopez-Martinez,

    1. Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC) Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
    Current affiliation:
    1. The University of Hull, Department of Chemistry, Cottingham Road, Hull, HU6 7RX, United Kingdom
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  • Abdellatif Baraket,

    1. Université de Lyon, Lyon1, Institut des Sciences Analytiques (ISA), UMR 5280, 5 Rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne Cedex, France
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  • Nadia Zine,

    1. Université de Lyon, Lyon1, Institut des Sciences Analytiques (ISA), UMR 5280, 5 Rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne Cedex, France
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  • Jaume Esteve,

    1. Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC) Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Jose A. Plaza,

    1. Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC) Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault,

    1. Université de Lyon, Lyon1, Institut des Sciences Analytiques (ISA), UMR 5280, 5 Rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne Cedex, France
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  • Abdelhamid Errachid

    Corresponding author
    1. Université de Lyon, Lyon1, Institut des Sciences Analytiques (ISA), UMR 5280, 5 Rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne Cedex, France
    • Université de Lyon, Lyon1, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques (LSA), UMR 5180, 43 bd du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France
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Abstract

Over the past few years, a growing interest on covalent bonding of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices to thermoplastic films has developed due to reduced costs, biocompatibility, and flexibility. The silane reagent, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) has been applied to create this bonding. Here, we report on the fabrication of replica PDMS micromixer devices from a silicon mold using soft lithography that is rapid, facile, and cost-effective to manufacture. After replica molding, the PDMS micromixer devices were bonded to the APTES-activated thermoplastic films of polyimide, polyethylene terephthalate, and polyethylene naphthalate. Characterization of these thermoplastic surfaces was analyzed by contact angle measurement, surface free energy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. To demonstrate the functionality of this technology, we have analyzed the PDMS micromixers by a peel test, nonleakages, and mixing with the injection of inks, a surfactant, and varying pH solutions. To our knowledge, this is the first reported example in literature of the PDMS–APTES–thermoplastic films preparation that integrates a complex micromixer device. Here, we have established that the hydrophobicity of both sealed polymers required alteration in order for dispersion of a polar liquid in the mixing loops. The application of a polar solvent before injection can remedy this ill effect formulating a hydrophilic micromixer. These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of the fabrication technology, bonding technique, and application of the micromixer that, once optimized, can eventually integrate more components to formulate a lab-on-a-chip with the fabrication of gold microelectrodes for biological analysis of blood or plasma. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem, 2013

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