Donor–acceptor-integrated conjugated polymers based on carbazole[3,4-c:5,6-c]bis[1,2,5]thiadiazole with tight π–π stacking for photovoltaics

Authors

  • Daijun Zha,

    1. Institute of Polymers, Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031, China
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  • Lie Chen,

    1. Institute of Polymers, Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031, China
    2. Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of New Energy Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031, China
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  • Feiyan Wu,

    1. Institute of Polymers, Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031, China
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  • Hongming Wang,

    1. Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of New Energy Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031, China
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  • Yiwang Chen

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Polymers, Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031, China
    2. Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of New Energy Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031, China
    • Institute of Polymers, Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031, China
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Abstract

An original strategy to construct a new donor–acceptor (D–A)-integrated structure by directly imposing “pull” unit on the “push” moiety to form fused ring architecture has been developed, and poly{N-alkyl-carbazole[3,4-c:5,6-c]bis[1,2,5]thiadiazole-alt-thiophene} (PCBTT) with D–A-integrated structure, in which two 1,2,5-thiadiazole rings are fixed on carbazole in 3-, 4- and 5-, 6-position symmetrically and thiophene is used as bridge, has been synthesized. The interaction between pull and push units has fine tuned the HOMO/LUMO energy levels, and the resulting copolymer covers the solar flux from 300 to 750 nm. The interaction between pull and push units is worth noting that due to the fused five rings inducing strong intermolecular interaction, an extremely short π–π stacking distance of 0.32 nm has been achieved for PCBTT both in powder and solid states. This is the shortest π–π stacking distance reported for conjugated polymers. Additionally, an obvious intramolecular charge transfer and energy transfer from donor units to acceptor units have been detected in this D–A integration. A moderate-to-high open-circuit voltage of ∼0.7 V in PCBTT:[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) (w/w = 1/2) solar cells is achieved due to the low-lying HOMO energy level of PCBTT. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem, 2013

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