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Keywords:

  • active filler;
  • biopolymers;
  • cross-linking;
  • deep eutectic solvents;
  • drug delivery systems;
  • frontal polymerization

Abstract

The deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on the mixtures of a variety of ammonium salts and hydrogen bond donors containing acrylic acids and acrylamides are capable of sustaining frontal polymerization (FP). The selection of ammonium salt affects the reactivity and allows FP at relatively low temperature but with full conversion. Also, full conversion allows us to use these polymers for biomedical applications (e.g., drug delivery systems) as the unreactive ammonium salts can be released from the resulting polymer without by-products. We call these components “active fillers,” which can be ammonium salts with biological or pharmaceutical importance. For instance, we prepared poly(acrylic acid) loaded with lidocaine hydrochloride (a common anesthetic), the release of which was found to occur in a controlled fashion. The ammonium salts also create a sufficiently high viscosity to suppress buoyancy-driven convection without additional materials. The DES here described played an all-in-one role, providing the monomer, the active filler, and the polymerization medium for FPs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem, 2013