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Deep eutectic solvents as both active fillers and monomers for frontal polymerization

Authors

  • Josué D. Mota-Morales,

    1. Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV) Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Querétaro, Qro., 76230, México
    2. Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid, Spain
    3. Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712
    Current affiliation:
    1. Josué D. Mota-Morales, CINVESTAV, México
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  • María C. Gutiérrez,

    1. Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid, Spain
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  • M. Luisa Ferrer,

    1. Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid, Spain
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  • Isaac C. Sanchez,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803
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  • Eduardo A. Elizalde-Peña,

    1. Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV) Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Querétaro, Qro., 76230, México
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  • John A. Pojman,

    1. Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712
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  • Francisco Del Monte,

    1. Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid, Spain
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  • Gabriel Luna-Bárcenas

    Corresponding author
    1. Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV) Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Querétaro, Qro., 76230, México
    • Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV) Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Querétaro, Qro., 76230, México
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  • This article was published online on 30 January 2013. An error was subsequently identified. This notice is included in the online and print versions to indicate that both have been corrected on 8 March 2013.

Abstract

The deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on the mixtures of a variety of ammonium salts and hydrogen bond donors containing acrylic acids and acrylamides are capable of sustaining frontal polymerization (FP). The selection of ammonium salt affects the reactivity and allows FP at relatively low temperature but with full conversion. Also, full conversion allows us to use these polymers for biomedical applications (e.g., drug delivery systems) as the unreactive ammonium salts can be released from the resulting polymer without by-products. We call these components “active fillers,” which can be ammonium salts with biological or pharmaceutical importance. For instance, we prepared poly(acrylic acid) loaded with lidocaine hydrochloride (a common anesthetic), the release of which was found to occur in a controlled fashion. The ammonium salts also create a sufficiently high viscosity to suppress buoyancy-driven convection without additional materials. The DES here described played an all-in-one role, providing the monomer, the active filler, and the polymerization medium for FPs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem, 2013

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