Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

15 September 2001

Volume 39, Issue 18

Pages 3043–3197

  1. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Articles
    3. Rapid Communication
    4. Articles
    1. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro degradation of thermotropic polyesters and copolyesters based on terephthalic acid, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and glycols (pages 3043–3051)

      Minoru Nagata and Masayuki Nakae

      Version of Record online: 30 JUL 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.1285

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      A new series of thermotropic liquid-crystalline (LC) polyesters with potentially biodegradable properties were prepared from a diacyl chloride derivative of 4,4′-(terephthaloyldioxy)-di-4-phenylpropionic acid (PTP) and glycols with a different number of methylene groups (n) [HO(CH2)n OH, n = 6–10, 12] by high-temperature solution polycondensation in diphenyl oxide. PTP6/10 and PTP6/hydroquinone LC copolyesters were also prepared in a similar manner. The thermal properties and in vitro degradation of these LC polyesters and copolyesters were examined.

    2. Synthesis of a new polymer surface bearing grafted azo polymer chains (pages 3052–3061)

      Fabienne Poncin-Epaillard, Johann Beunet, A. Bulou and Jean-François Bardeau

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.1286

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      {4′-[(Hydroxy)ethyl]amino}-4-nitroazobenzene (disperse red 1), a photosensitive chromophore, can be grafted to a polymer chain as a part of the main chain, as a dangling group, or onto the polymer surface. In the last case, it is transformed into an acrylic monomer and then grafted onto polypropylene modified with carbon dioxide plasma. A method is proposed for quantifying the radicals formed during the plasma treatment and, consequently, for optimizing the grafting. The best conditions (the nature of the solvent, temperature, monomer concentration, and duration) are given. Both IR and Raman spectroscopies were used as efficient techniques for grafting characterization.

    3. Synthesis and characterizations of the four-armed amphiphilic block copolymer S[poly(2,3-dihydroxypropyl acrylate)-block-poly(methyl acrylate)]4 (pages 3062–3072)

      Pan Cai-Yuan, Tao Lei and Wu De-Cheng

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.1287

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      Linear and four-armed poly[(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4yl) methyl acrylate]s (PDMDMAs) were prepared by the bulk ATRP of (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4yl) methyl acrylate (DMDMA) with benzyl α-bromopropionate or four-armed initiator/CuBr/2,2′-bipyridine as an initiator system, respectively. The amphiphilic AB diblock polymer poly(2,3-dihydroxypropyl acrylate)-block-poly(methyl acrylate) and the four-armed copolymer S[poly(2,3-dihydroxypropyl acrylate)-block-poly(methyl acrylate)]4 [S(PDHPA-b-PMA)4] were obtained via hydrolysis of the corresponding AB block copolymer poly[(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4yl) methyl acrylate]-block-poly(methyl acrylate) and the four-armed block copolymer S{poly[(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4yl) methyl acrylate]-block-poly(methyl acrylate)}4 [S(PDMDMA-b-PMA)4] in a 1 N HCl aqueous solution. The structures of these polymers were characterized with 1H NMR, gel permeation chromatography, and so forth.

    4. Novel refreshable N-halamine polymeric biocides containing imidazolidin-4-one derivatives (pages 3073–3084)

      Yuyu Sun, Tay-Yuan Chen, S. D. Worley and Gang Sun

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.1288

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      A novel cyclic-amine monomer, 1-acryloyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylimidazolidin-4-one, was synthesized and copolymerized with several widely used acrylic and vinyl monomers under ordinary conditions. After regular chlorine bleach treatment, N-halamine derivatives of the corresponding polymeric materials exhibited antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli, and these properties were durable and refreshable with chlorine bleaching.

    5. Early cure behavior of a liquid dicyanate ester resin (pages 3085–3092)

      King-Fu Lin and Jing-Yau Shyu

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.1289

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      The curing intermediates produced in the early cure of 4,4-dicyanato 1,1-diphenolethane resin were separated by the column elution method and characterized by Fourier transform infrared, 1H, and 3C NMR spectroscopies. The formed dimer is a straight chain containing a primary amino group. The triazine ring in the trimers had a strong catalytic effect on the remaining cyanate groups so that the reactivity of the trimers was significantly increased. The reactivities of the curing intermediates decreased with molecular size until 7-mer was reached. The initial monomer consumption is described by second-order-rate kinetics.

    6. Mechanism of emulsion polymerization of styrene using a reactive surfactant (pages 3093–3105)

      X. Wang, E. D. Sudol and M. S. El-Aasser

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.1290

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      Several reasons are cited to explain the unusual kinetics of the emulsion polymerization of styrene using the reactive surfactant TREM LF-40, including chain transfer, copolymerization, and the influence of the homopolymer or copolymer on the entry and exit of free radicals. Latex characterization provided evidence for the chemical bonding of TREM LF-40 to the polymer particles. The fraction of chemically bound reactive surfactant decreased with increasing surfactant concentration although the absolute amount increased.

    7. Morphology of micron-sized, monomer-adsorbed, crosslinked polymer particles having snowmanlike shapes prepared by the dynamic swelling method (pages 3106–3111)

      Masayoshi Okubo, Zhaoqun Wang, Tsuyoshi Yamashita, Eriko Ise and Hideto Minami

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.1291

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      A series of monomer-adsorbed, crosslinked polystyrene/polydivinylbenzene composite particles having snowmanlike shapes were prepared by the dynamic swelling method that the authors had proposed in 1991. The morphology of the snowman-shaped particles was estimated with the contact angle of the monomer phase on the polymer particle. Influences of the kind of monomers and polyvinyl alcohol colloidal stabilizer on the morphology were obviously observed and discussed from the viewpoint of thermodynamic stability.

    8. Fast and convenient construction of carbamate/urea-based dendrimers with a diisocyanate building block (pages 3112–3120)

      H. W. I. Peerlings, R. A. T. M. Van Benthem and E. W. Meijer

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.1292

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      The difference in the reactivity of the two isocyanate functionalities in cis-4-isocyanatomethyl-1-methyl-cyclohexylisocyanate makes it a versatile AB building block for the synthesis of dendrimers. The synthetic strategy necessitates only techniques such as stirring, heating, and accurate dosing, and there is no workup required for the purification of the compounds.

    9. Reactions of polystyryllithiums and model lithium carbanions with 9,10-bis(halomethyl)anthracenes (pages 3121–3129)

      Eric S. Tillman, Gennadi G. Nossarev and Thieo E. Hogen-Esch

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.1293

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      The incorporation of the 9,10-anthracenylidene (AN) group into model carbanions was studied through the reaction of 9,10-bis(chloromethyl)anthracene or 9,10-bis(bromomethyl)anthracene in tetrahydrofuran (THF) with model aryllithiums and similar carbanions obtained by the end capping of polystyryllithium (PSLi). Although coupling was quantitative, AN incorporation was not. Eventually, both successful quantitative AN incorporation and PSLi coupling occurred via the reaction of PSLi with 9,10-bis(chloromethyl)anthracene at −78 °C in THF/hexane (60/40 v/v).

    10. Degradation behavior of stereoregular cis–transoidal poly(phenylacetylene)s (pages 3130–3136)

      S. M. Abdul Karim, Ryouji Nomura and Toshio Masuda

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.1294

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      A cis–transoidal poly(phenylacetylene) obtained with a Rh catalyst showed lower stability in solution than a trans-rich one prepared with a W-based catalyst. The rate of degradation of W-based poly(phenylacetylene) was independent of the solvents, whereas that of the cis–transoidal one strongly depended on the solvents. The stereoregularity of the cis contents of cis–transoidal poly(phenylacetylene)s was retained during degradation.

  2. Rapid Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Articles
    3. Rapid Communication
    4. Articles
    1. Ring-opening graft copolymerization of epoxide with polyaniline: Chemical properties and lithium ionic conductivity of the copolymer (pages 3137–3142)

      Isao Yamaguchi, Takuma Yasuda and Takakazu Yamamoto

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.1295

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      The NaH-promoted deprotonation of leucoemeraldine base polyaniline (LEB) and its subsequent treatment with phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) caused the ring-opening polymerization of PGE to give a graft copolymer (LEB-g-PGE). LEB-g-PGE was soluble in acetone and chloroform, which were poor solvents for LEB. An LEB-g-PGE/LiBF4 composite film was obtained through the evaporation of a dimethylformamide solution containing LEB-g-PGE and LiBF4; the film showed an electroconductivity of 1.0 × 10−6 S cm−1 at 295 K, as determined by complex impedance analysis.

  3. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Articles
    3. Rapid Communication
    4. Articles
    1. Synthesis and properties of fluorene-based fluorinated polymers (pages 3143–3150)

      Hisamitsu Kameshima, Nobukatsu Nemoto and Takeshi Endo

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.1296

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      Fluorene-based polymers containing various fluorinated benzene (fluorobenzene, p-difluorobenzene, and tetrafluorobenzene) moieties were synthesized. In addition, perfluorooctylation of poly-[(9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diyl)-co-(fluorene-2,7-diyl)] was carried out to afford fluorene-based polymers with perfluorooctyl moiety at the 9-position on the fluorene ring. To evaluate the effect of fluorine moiety, the polymers containing nonfluorinated benzene moieties and nonfluorinated octyl groups were integrated. The photoluminescence measurements indicated that all these polymers exhibited blue emission in solution, but a polymer containing a perfluorooctyl group did not emit in the film state. However, the polymers containing various fluorinated benzene moieties showed higher fluorescence quantum yields and thermal stability than those containing nonfluorinated benzene.

    2. Synthesis and properties of poly-(2-ethynylpyridinium bromide) having propargyl side chains (pages 3151–3158)

      Yeong-Soon Gal, Won-Chul Lee, Sang-Yul Kim, Jong-Wook Park, Sung-Ho Jin, Kwang-Nak Koh and Sung-Hoon Kim

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.1297

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      Poly-(2-ethynylpyridinium bromide) having propargyl side chains was prepared by the direct polymerization of 2-ethynylpyridine and propargyl bromide under mild reaction conditions without any initiator and catalysts. This ionic polymer was completely soluble in water, methanol, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and N,N-dimethylacetamide and well processable into a thin homogeneous film. The photoluminescence intensity (λmax = 760 nm) of this polymer increased as the temperature was increased. At 1 KHz and room temperature, this polymer has k′ = 2.9 and σ = 7.3 × 10−10 (S/cm).

    3. Equilibrium polymerization behavior in the cationic single ring-opening polymerization of bicyclo orthoesters (pages 3159–3167)

      Fumio Sanda, Masakatsu Hitomi and Takeshi Endo

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.1298

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      The synthesis and cationic polymerization of the following bicyclo orthoesters were examined: 4-ethyl-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, 1,4-diethyl-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, 4-ethyl-1-phenyl-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, 4-ethyl-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, and 4-ethyl-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane. All the monomers underwent equilibrium polymerization, which was confirmed by the relationships between the polymerization temperature and monomer conversion. The obtained polymers afforded the original monomers via an acid-catalyst treatment with a low reagent concentration in CH2Cl2 at 20 °C. The equilibrium monomer concentration was constant, regardless of the initial reagent concentration, in both polymerization and depolymerization. The bicyclo orthoesters with a bulky and electron-withdrawing substituent showed a larger equilibrium monomer concentration.

    4. Synthesis and properties of amorphous blue-light-emitting polymers with high glass-transition temperatures (pages 3168–3179)

      V. Deimede, J. K. Kallitsis and T. Pakula

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.1299

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      Amorphous blue-light-emitting polymers were synthesized by reaction of substituted terphenyl or quinquephenyl diols with bis(fluorophenyl)phenylphosphin oxide. Soluble polymers with relatively high molecular weight forming free-standing films were obtained. Controlling the chemical structure of the diol moiety, the optical as well as the mechanical and rheological properties of these polymers, can effectively be controlled.

    5. Helix formation of poly(phenylacetylene) derivatives bearing amino groups at the meta position induced by optically active carboxylic acids (pages 3180–3189)

      Katsuhiro Maeda, Seiji Okada, Eiji Yashima and Yoshio Okamoto

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.1300

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      Novel cis–transoidal poly(phenylacetylene) derivatives bearing amino groups at the meta position were prepared by the polymerization of the corresponding monomers with a rhodium complex. These polymers formed a one-handed helical conformation upon complexation with optically active carboxylic acids to exhibit a characteristic induced circular dichroism (ICD) in the UV–visible region. The ICD signs reflected the absolute configuration of the chiral acids.

    6. Syntheses of amphiphilic block copolymers by living cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers and their selective solvent-induced physical gelation (pages 3190–3197)

      Shinji Sugihara, Shin-Ichiro Matsuzono, Hideki Sakai, Masahiko Abe and Sadahito Aoshima

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2001 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.1301

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      Various amphiphilic diblock copolymers with a narrow molecular weight distribution were prepared by the living cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers in the presence of added bases. The characteristic solvent-induced physical gelation of the diblock copolymers was investigated in detail. For example, the addition of selective solvents such as water to the polymer solution led to the sudden occurrence of physical gelation, and the system ceased to flow, maintaining transparency. Other gelation conditions and physical gelation by various amphiphilic diblock copolymers were also designed on the basis of the solubility of each block segment.

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