Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

1 August 2002

Volume 40, Issue 15

Pages 2537–2717

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      On the propagation rate constants of cationic polymerizations (pages 2537–2544)

      Peter H. Plesch

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10314

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      In chemically initiated cationic polymerizations, the interaction of carbenium ions with the solvent, monomer and anion can result in the formation of up to six unpaired species. Of the many rate constants governing the consumption of monomer, only one has any general theoretical use, and suggestions are made here for how it can be measured.

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    1. Synthesis and characterization of poly(ethylene oxide)/polylactide/poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer (pages 2545–2555)

      Soo-Hong Lee, Soo Hyun Kim, Yang-Kyoo Han and Young Ha Kim

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10339

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      Poly(ethylene oxide/polylactide/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO/PL/PEO) triblock copolymers, in which each block is connected by an ester bond, were synthesized by a coupling reaction between PL and PEO. Hydroxyl-terminated PLs with various molecular weights were synthesized and used as hard segments. Hydroxyl-terminated PEOs were converted to the corresponding acid halides via their acid group and used as a soft segment. Triblock copolymers were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H NMR, and gel permeation chromatography. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry of PEO/PL/PEO triblock copolymers suggested that PL and PEO blocks were phase-separated and that the crystallization behavior of the PL block was markedly affected by the presence of the PEO block. PEO/PL/PEO triblock copolymers with PEO 0.75k had two exothermic peaks (by DSC), and both peaks were related to the crystallization of PL. According to thermogravimetric analysis, the PEO/PL/PEO triblock copolymer showed a higher thermal stability than PL or PEO.

    2. Synthesis and characterization of new highly organosoluble poly(ether imide)s based on 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethyl-2,2-bis[4-(4-dicarboxyphenoxy)phenyl]propane dianhydride (pages 2556–2563)

      Der-Jang Liaw, I-Wen Chen, Wen-Hsiang Chen and Shu-Ling Lin

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10338

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      A new bis(ether anhydride), bearing both flexible ether and isopropylidene bridges between the phenylene units and the tetramethyl substituents on the phenylene units, was successfully prepared in three steps, starting from 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylphenyl)propane. A series of poly(ether imide)s with moderate to high molecular weights were obtained from this dianhydride monomer and various diamines. These poly(ether imide)s showed excellent solubility in various organic solvents, including chloroform. Most of the polymers could be dissolved with chloroform concentrations as high as 30 wt %. They also showed good thermal stability and mechanical properties. Therefore, these new highly soluble poly(ether imide)s could be considered processable high-performance polymeric materials.

    3. Synthesis and properties of new soluble aromatic polyamides and polyimides on the basis of N,N′-bis(3-aminobenzoyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (pages 2564–2574)

      Guey-Sheng Liou and Sheng-Huei Hsiao

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10342

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      A new N-phenylated amide (N-phenylamide) unit containing aromatic diamine, N,N′-bis(3-aminobenzoyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine, was prepared by the condensation of N,N′-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine with 3-nitrobenzoyl chloride, followed by catalytic reduction. Two series of organosoluble aromatic poly(N-phenylamide-imide)s and poly(N-phenylamide-amide)s with inherent viscosities of 0.58–0.82 and 0.56–1.21 dL/g were prepared by a conventional two-stage method and the direct phosphorylation polycondensation, respectively, from the diamine with various aromatic dianhydrides and aromatic dicarboxylic acids.

    4. Synthesis of model polycyclohexylene/polyethylene miktoarm star copolymers with three and four arms (pages 2575–2582)

      Thodoris Tsoukatos and Nikos Hadjichristidis

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10332

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      Model polycyclohexylene (PCHE)/polyethylene (PE) 3- and 4-miktoarm star copolymers were prepared by hydrogenation of the corresponding 3- and 4-miktoarm star copolymers of poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) (PCHD) and 1,4-polybutadiene (PBd). The precursor copolymers were synthesized by anionic polymerization high-vacuum techniques and controlled chlorosilane chemistry.

    5. Synthesis of new fluorinated allyl ethers for the surface modification of thiol–ene ultraviolet-curable formulations (pages 2583–2590)

      M. Sangermano, R. Bongiovanni, G. Malucelli, A. Priola, A. Harden and N. Rehnberg

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10349

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      Thiol–ene photocurable systems, based on a trifunctional thiol and two different multifunctional allyl ethers, were investigated. The surface properties of UV-cured films were deeply modified by the addition of small amounts (<1 wt %) of two new fluorinated allyl ethers synthesized by allylation of the corresponding perfluoro alcohols.

    6. Synthesis of poly(p-phenylene vinylene)- and poly(phenylene ethynylene)-based polymers containing p-terphenyl in the main chain with alkoxyphenyl side groups (pages 2591–2600)

      Ioakim K. Spiliopoulos and John A. Mikroyannidis

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10352

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      New and photoluminescent poly(p-phenylene vinylene)- and poly(phenylene ethynylene)-based polymers containing p-terphenyl in the main chain with alkoxyphenyl side groups were synthesized with a pyrylium salt. They were amorphous, dissolved in common organic solvents, and had glass-transition temperatures of 120–131 °C. The polymers showed violet-blue photoluminescence, and the photoluminescence maximum was around 420 and 450 °C in solution and in thin films, respectively.

    7. Synthesis and characterization of halogen-containing poly(ether ketone ketone)s (pages 2601–2608)

      Carolina García, Ángel E. Lozano, José G. de la Campa and J. de Abajo

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10351

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      Poly(ether ketone ketone)s (PEKKs) were prepared that contained 5-halo- and 5-tert-butyl-isophthaloyl moieties. The polymers were synthesized by a precipitation polycondensation method from diphenyl ether and 5-substituted derivatives of isophthaloyl chloride with AlCl3 as a catalyst. Reasonably high molecular weights were achieved for the novel PEKKs, which revealed special spectroscopic features that could be related to the nature of the substituents. The presence of substituents and the combination of meta- and para-phenylenes in the main chain made these polymers amorphous and soluble in common organic solvents. Glass-transition temperatures were comparable to those of conventional polyaryl(ether ketone)s, and they showed a linear dependence on the volume of the halogen, whereas decomposition temperatures, as measured by thermogravimetric analysis, were lowered by the presence of substituents.

    8. Epoxy-functionalized, low glass-transition temperature latex. I. Synthesis, characterizations, and polymer interdiffusion (pages 2609–2625)

      Frédéric Tronc, Ronghua Liu, Mitchell A. Winnik, Sarah T. Eckersley, Gene D. Rose, J. M. Weishuhn and D. M. Meunier

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10319

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      Results are presented for the synthesis, characterization, and film formation of poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) latex dispersions with a dry polymer glass-transition temperature of 7 °C. Polymer diffusion was followed by energy transfer with a 1:1 mixture of latex particles labeled with donor and acceptor dyes. Because diffusion occurred readily at room temperature, films were prepared at 4 °C. Even in the absence of an externally added crosslinking agent, the films began to gel as soon as they were formed.

    9. Block copolyesters of poly(pentamethylene p,p′-bibenzoate) and poly(tetramethylene adipate) (pages 2626–2636)

      Ruey-Shi Tsai, Yu-Der Lee and Hong-Bing Tsai

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10350

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      Hydroxy-terminated poly(pentamethylene p,p′-bibenzoate) oligomers with different molecular weights were prepared. Block copolyesters with hard segments of poly(pentamethylene p,p′-bibenzoate) and soft segments of poly(tetramethylene adipate) were prepared by coupling the poly(pentamethylene p,p′-bibenzoate) oligomer and a poly(tetramethylene adipate)glycol with methylene-4,4′-diphenylene diisocyanate in solution. The block copolyesters were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, differential scanning calorimetry, a polarized microscope, and X-ray diffraction. The thermal transitions of the block copolyesters were dependent on the composition and the molecular weight of the poly(pentamethylene p,p′-bibenzoate) oligomer used.

    10. Preparation of poly(arylenediphosphine)s by palladium-catalyzed polycondensation: Formation of polymer transition-metal complexes and catalytic reactions (pages 2637–2647)

      Takaki Kanbara, Syuichi Takase, Rika Hayashi, Shigehiro Kagaya, Kiyoshi Hasegawa and Takakazu Yamamoto

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10343

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      The palladium-catalyzed polycondensation of aryl diiodides with 1,3-bis(phenylphosphino)-propane afforded poly(arylenediphosphine)s in good yields. Treatment of the polyphosphine with elemental sulfur and hydrogen peroxide efficiently converted the polyphosphine into poly(arylenediphosphine sulfide) and poly(arylenediphosphine oxide), respectively. Treatment of the polyphosphines with Pd(II) and Pt(II) yielded corresponding polymer-metal complexes with high metal contents. Application of the polymer-Pd complexes in homogeneous and heterogeneous aryl alkynylation and carbonylation was examined. The polymer-Pd complexes showed good catalytic activity similar to that of the corresponding low molecular weight Pd complex, and reuse of the polymer catalysts was easily achieved.

    11. Synthesis and properties of new aromatic polysquaramide by solid-state thermal polycondensation of salt monomer composed of squaric acid and bis(4-aminophenyl) ether (pages 2648–2655)

      Yoshio Imai, Motohito Shiratori, Tatsuo Inoue and Masa-aki Kakimoto

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10355

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      The 1:1 stoichiometric salt monomer composed of squaric acid and bis(4-aminophenyl) ether was successfully prepared and subjected to solid-state thermal polycondensation under ordinary or high pressure, giving quite readily the aromatic polysquaramide with moderately high molecular weight. The polysquaramide formed was actually the random copolymer consisting of two component polymers, one of the main component being the polymer with a quasi-aromatic mesoionic structure.

    12. Synthesis and properties of new aromatic poly-(ether benzoxazole)s from 2,2′-bis(4-amino-3-hydroxyphenoxy)biphenyl and aromatic dicarboxylic acid chlorides (pages 2656–2662)

      Yoshio Imai, Yasumasa Maeda, Hisashi Takeuchi, Ki-Hong Park, Masa-aki Kakimoto and Toshikazu Kurosaki

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10360

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      New aromatic poly(ether benzoxazole)s with a crank and twisted noncoplanar structure and ether linkages were synthesized in two steps by the polycondensation of 2,2′-bis(4-amino-3-hydroxyphenoxy)biphenyl with various aromatic dicarboxylic acid chlorides, yielding precursor poly(ether o-hydroxyamide)s, and subsequent thermal cyclodehydration.

    13. Vinyltitanium as an initiator for the polymerization of acetylene (pages 2663–2669)

      Yasuhiro Takagi, Naoko Saeki, Akira Tsubouchi, Hisashi Murakami, Yoshinao Kumagai and Takeshi Takeda

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10362

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      The vinyltitanium-initiated polymerization of acetylene produced a polyacetylene film with an E configuration.

    14. Highly luminescent diyne ([BOND]C[TRIPLE BOND]C[BOND]C[TRIPLE BOND]C[BOND]) containing hybrid polyphenyleneethynylene/poly(p-phenylenevinylene) polymer: Synthesis and characterization (pages 2670–2679)

      Daniel Ayuk Mbi Egbe, Eckhard Birckner and Elisabeth Klemm

      Version of Record online: 19 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10359

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      Diyne-containing polyphenyleneethynylene/poly(p-phenylenevinylene) hybrid polymer poly[1,4-phenylene-ethynylene-1,4-(2,5-dioctadecyloxy)- phenylene-butadi-1,3-ynylene-1,4-(2,5-dioctadecyloxy)phenylene- ethynylene-1,4-phenylene-ethene-1,2-diyl-1,4-(2,5-dioctadecyloxy)phenylene-ethene-1,2-diyl] (7) has been synthesized and characterized. Its photophysical properties in solution (at room temperature and at 77 K) and in the solid state (at room temperature) were compared to those of its diyne-free counterpart poly[1,4-phenyleneethynylene-1,4-(2,5-dioctadecyloxyphenylene)-1,4-phenyleneethene-1,2-diyl-1,4-(2,5-dioctadecyloxyphenylene)ethene-1,2-diyl] 6. The relatively high fluorescence quantum yield of 52% and the very high threshold voltage (400 V) for the detection of photoconductivity in 7 are ascribed to the presence of the diyne units.

    15. Vinylic polymerization of norbornene by neutral nickel(II)-based catalysts (pages 2680–2685)

      Xiao-Fang Li and Yue-Sheng Li

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10358

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      The vinylic polymerization of norbornene by neutral nickel(II) salicylaldiminato complexes activated with modified methylaluminoxane was investigated. Catalyst activities of up to 7.08 × 104 kgpol/molNi · h and viscosity-average molecular weights of polymer up to 1.5 × 106g/mol were observed at optimum conditions. Polynorbornenes are amorphous, soluble in organic solvents, highly stable, and show a glass-transition temperature around 390 °C.

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    1. Synthesis and characterization of new π-conjugated polymers constituted of five-membered rings: Poly(2,2′-biimidazole-5,5′-diyl)s (pages 2686–2688)

      Takakazu Yamamoto and Takashi Uemura

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10354

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      New π-conjugated polymers consisting of imidazole rings have been synthesized. Gel permeation chromatographic analysis revealed number-average molecular weights of 8200–15,000. Poly(1,1′-dimethoxymethyl-2,2′-biimidazole-5,5′-diyl), PBIm(NMOM) can be deprotected.

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    1. Novel quaternary ammonium borates as latent catalysts for epoxy–phenolic resins (pages 2689–2701)

      Yoshiyuki Goh, Takao Iijima and Masao Tomoi

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10356

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      Novel tetrabutylammonium tetrakis(substituted benzoyloxy)borate salts were synthesized by the reaction of tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate and corresponding substituted benzoic acids. Polyaddition reactions of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and bisphenol F with the ammonium borates were investigated as model reactions of epoxy/phenol–novolac resin systems with respect to the thermal latency and storage stability of the catalyst.

    2. Thermal latency of novel chelating borate catalysts as latent catalysts for epoxy–phenolic resins (pages 2702–2716)

      Yoshiyuki Goh, Takao Iijima and Masao Tomoi

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10353

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      Novel quaternary ammonium salts of bis(2-oxybenzoyloxy)borate (1) and bis(1,2-benzenedioxy)borate salts (2) were synthesized as latent catalysts of epoxy/phenol–novolac resins. Polyaddition reactions of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and bisphenol F with those ammonium borate catalysts were investigated as model reactions of epoxy/phenol–novolac resin systems with respect to the thermal latency and storage stability of the catalyst.

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      One- and two-dimensional NMR characterization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone/methyl acrylate copolymers (page 2717)

      A. S. Brar and Rajeev Kumar

      Version of Record online: 19 JUN 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.1336

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      N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone/methyl acrylate (V/M) copolymers were prepared by free-radical bulk polymerization. The copolymer composition of these copolymers was calculated from 1H NMR spectra. The radical reactivity ratios for N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (V) and methyl acrylate (M) were rV = 0.09, rM = 0.44. The complete spectral assignment of the 13C and 1H NMR spectra were done with distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer and two-dimensional (2D) heteronuclear single quantum correlation spectroscopic experiments. The 2D total correlation spectroscopic NMR spectrum showed the various bond interactions, thus inferring the possible structure of the copolymers.

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