Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

15 April 2002

Volume 40, Issue 8

Pages 923–1207

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      Isotopically pure uniform polymers: The final step toward true uniformity in macromolecules (pages 923–935)

      Otto Vogl, Gary D. Jaycox and William J. Simonsick Jr.

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10164

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      Computer-based calculations were used to simulate the mass spectra for a number of uniform macromolecules having fixed, well-defined chain lengths. The presence of naturally occurring carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and halogen isotopes introduced significant levels of mass heterogeneity into these systems. For a given polymer, mass variability was demonstrated to be a function of both the elemental composition and degree of polymerization of the polymer chain. In many cases, these natural variations in mass exceeded the molecular weight of one or more monomeric repeat units along the polymer backbone, effectively blurring the distinction between uniform polymer constructs formed from N and N+1 repeat units. The significance of isotopic diversity and its potential impact on the synthesis and study of highly uniform macromolecules is discussed.

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    1. Synthesis and characterization of end-group modified hyperbranched polyetherimides (pages 936–946)

      Joshua A. Orlicki, Julie L. Thompson, Larry J. Markoski, Kevin N. Sill and Jeffrey S. Moore

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10170

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      Terminating an AB2-type polycondensation reaction with monofunctional segments generated end-capped hyperbranched polymers. A one-pot double-addition reaction sequence alowed the installation of a wide range of end groups, which in turn controlled physical properties such as thermal behavior and solubility. Polymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, contact angle, and their ability to form continuous films.

    2. Synthesis and properties of aromatic polyamides based on a benzonorbornane bis(ether carboxylic acid) (pages 947–957)

      Sheng-Huei Hsiao and Tai-Lin Huang

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10179

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      A set of new aromatic polyamides containing ether and benzonorbornane units were synthesized by the direct phosphorylation polycondensation of 3,6-bis(4-carboxyphenoxy)benzonorbornane with various aromatic diamines. Except for those obtained from rigid diamines such as p-phenylenediamine and benzidine, the obtained polyamides were noncrystalline, displayed good solubility, and gave flexible and tough films. In comparison to analogous polyamides without the norbornane side group, these polyamides showed apparently decreased crystallinity and enhanced solubility.

    3. Synthesis and electrical properties of polyacetylene derivatives (pages 958–964)

      Sung-Ho Jin, Jung-Ei Jin, Seong-Bae Moon, Hyung-Jong Lee, Yeong-Soon Gal, Hyun-Don Kim, Sung-Hyun Kim, Sung-Hoon Kim and Kwangnak Koh

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10188

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      Cyclopolymerization of 1,6-heptadiyne derivatives containing the bulky substitutents was carried out by metathesis catalyst systems. The number-average molecular weight of these polymers was in the range of 2.4–6.27 × 103. The copolymers were stable up to 380 °C. The electrical conductivities of the I2-doped copolymer thin film by the four-point probe method and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy were about 500 and 600 S/cm, respectively.

    4. Bulk cyclopolymerization of 1,2:5,6-diepithio-3,4-di-O-methyl-1,2:5,6-tetradeoxy-D-mannitol with quaternary ammonium salts leading to gel-free thiosugar polymer (pages 965–970)

      Toshifumi Satoh, Tomoko Imai, Norihiko Sugie, Ryuji Nonokawa, Kazuaki Yokota and Toyoji Kakuchi

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10191

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      The bulk cyclopolymerization of 1,2:5,6-diepithio-3,4-di-O-methyl-1,2:5,6-tetradeoxy-D-mannitol was studied using R4N+Br (R = [BOND]CH3, C2H5, C3H7, C4H9, and C7H15) and (C4H9)4N+X (X = Cl, I, NO3, and ClO4) as the initiators. Polymerization at 90 °C produced the gel-free thiosugar polymers consisting of 2,5-anhydro-1,5-dithio-D-glicitol as the major repeating unit along with 1,5-anhydro-2,5-dithio-D-mannitol and the desulfurized uncyclic units as the minor ones.

    5. Reaction of glycidyl phenyl ether with imines: A model study of latent hardeners of epoxy resins in the presence of water (pages 971–975)

      Kentarou Suzuki, Nobuki Matsu-Ura, Hisakazu Horii, Yuko Sugita, Fumio Sanda and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10185

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      Imines prepared from diethyl ketone and cyclohexylmethylamine showed good hydrolysis properties and high reactivities with glycidyl phenyl ether under humid conditions. The hydrolyses of the imines depended on the electron density of the C[DOUBLE BOND]N carbon atom. The reaction rates of glycidyl phenyl ether with the imines depended on the hydrolysis rates of the imines and the basicity of the amines released.

    6. Staff-type dendrimer: End functionalization of the dendronized siloxane polymer Me3SiO[BOND](MeSiHO)n[BOND]SiMe3 (pages 976–982)

      Chungkyun Kim and Kyongran Kwark

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10180

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      The reaction of the monofunctionalized second-parent generation, which had three Si[BOND]Cl groups on the peripheral layer of the unit backbone, with allylalcohol, cholesterol, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 5-(2-hydroxyl)-4-methylthiazole, 4-pyridinepropanol, and 4-pyridinealdoxime in the presence of 1,1,2,2-tetramethyethylenediamine, produced end-functionalized, staff-type dendrimers.

    7. Synthesis and characterization of conducting poly(aniline-co-o-aminophenethyl alcohol)s (pages 983–994)

      Sungsik Baek, Jason J. Ree and Moonhor Ree

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10181

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      Poly(o-aminophenethyl alcohol) and its copolymers containing the aniline unit were synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization. These novel polymers exhibit good solubility in organic solvents that is attributed mainly to the polar hydroxyethyl side groups. The structures and properties of the polymers were characterized and then interpreted on the basis of the chemical composition along with the electronic and steric hindrance effects associated with the side group. Overall, the hydroxyethyl side group has a significant effect on the polymerization and influences the structure, chain conformation, and properties of the resultant polymer. In particular, the copolymers containing 20–40 mol % o-aminophenethyl alcohol units are potential conducting materials for microelectronic and electromagnetic shielding applications because they are easier to process than polyaniline but retain its beneficial properties. They can also be used as a functional conducting polymer intermediate owing to the reactivity of the side group.

    8. Synthesis and characterization of thiophene-substituted N-phenyl maleimide polymers by photoinduced radical polymerization (pages 995–1004)

      Luminita Cianga and Yusuf Yagci

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10182

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      The preparation of a new thiophene-substituted N-phenyl maleimide-type monomer and its photoinduced radical copolymerization with styrene were reported. The monomer reactivity ratios and Alfrey–Price Q,e values were also determined. The thermal behavior of the new synthesized monomers and polymers was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis.

    9. Direct functionalization of polyisobutylene by living initiation with α-methylstyrene epoxide (pages 1005–1015)

      J. Song, J. Bódis and J. E. Puskas

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10193

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      Polyisobutylenes (PIBs) carrying one primary hydroxyl head group and a tertiary chloride end group [Ph[BOND]C(CH3)(CH2OH)–PIB–CH2[BOND]C(CH3)2Cl] were prepared by living carbocationic polymerization with direct functionalization via initiation by the α-methylstyrene epoxide/titanium tetrachloride system from −50 to −80 °C. The polymers were characterized by 1H NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. 1H NMR of the trimethylsilyl derivative also verified one functional group per molecule. Both methods showed that each polymer chain carried one primary hydroxyl head group. The synthetic methodology presented here is an effective and simple route for the direct functionalization of PIB.

    10. Synthesis and properties of fluorinated polyimides. 1. Derived from novel 4,4″-bis(aminophenoxy)-3,3″-trifluoromethyl terphenyl (pages 1016–1027)

      Susanta Banerjee, Mukesh Kumar Madhra, Arun Kashinath Salunke and Gerhard Maier

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10189

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      A new diamine monomer, 4,4″-bis(aminophenoxy)-3,3″-trifluoromethyl terphenyl was synthesized that led to a number of novel fluorinated polyimides on reaction with different commercially available dianhydrides. Some of these polyimides were soluble in several organic solvents. These polyimides showed high thermal stability in air and very good isothermal stability. The polyimide films had low water absorption of 0.3–0.7%, low dielectric constants of 2.72–3.3 at 1 MHz, high tensile strength up to 112 MPa, a modulus of elasticity up to 3.05 GPa, and elongation at break up to 21% depending on the repeating unit structure.

    11. Positron annihilation studies of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) gel in mixed solvents (pages 1028–1036)

      Anjali Acharya, A. Goswami, P. K. Pujari, S. Sabharwal and S. B. Manohar

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10192

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      Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was used to characterize the reentrant volume-phase-transition behavior of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) hydrogel in an ethanol/water mixed solvent. The polymer gel was synthesized with γ irradiation. The ortho-positronium lifetime (τ3) in the gel slowly increased with an increase in the ethanol content in the mixed solvent. τ3 was not influenced by the volume phase transition. The ortho-positronium intensity decreased with the collapse of the gel in an approximately 10% ethanol/water mixture. When swelled in pure ethanol, τ3 initially increased with the solvent amount in the gel, showing the destruction of intramolecular hydrogen bonding and the relaxation of polymer chains. The lower critical solution temperature of the gel in the 10% ethanol/water mixture was lower than that in pure water, and τ3 for various solvent contents showed behavior similar to that seen for pure solvent.

    12. Novel pyridinium salts as cationic thermal and photoinitiators and their photosensitization properties (pages 1037–1046)

      Eiji Takahashi, Fumio Sanda and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10186

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      Novel pyridinium salts [N-(α-phenylbenzyl)-, N-(1-naphthylmethyl)-, or N-cinnamyl p- or o-cyanopyridinium hexafluoroantimonates] were synthesized by the reaction of p- or o-cyanopyridine and the corresponding bromides followed by anion exchange with KSbF6. These pyridinium salts polymerized epoxy monomers at lower temperatures than previously reported for N-benzyl-2-cyanopyridinium hexafluoroantimonate. The o-substituted pyridinium salts showed higher activity than the p-substituted ones, and the crosslinked epoxy polymers cured with these initiators showed higher glass-transition temperatures. These pyridinium salts photoinitiated radical polymerization as well as cationic polymerization. The photopolymerization was accelerated by the addition of aromatic ketones as photosensitizers.

    13. Polylactones. LVIII. Star-shaped polylactones with functional end groups via ring-expansion polymerization with a spiroinitiator (pages 1047–1057)

      Hans R. Kricheldorf and Björn Fechner

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10177

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      Novel spiroinitiators were obtained by the condensation of ethoxylated pentaerythritol with Bu2Sn(OMe)2. The addition of lactones resulted in ring-expansion polymerization. In situ acylation of the spirocyclic polylactones yielded biodegradable four-armed stars with functional end groups.

    14. Long-lived intermediates in reversible addition–fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization generated by γ radiation (pages 1058–1063)

      Christopher Barner-Kowollik, Philipp Vana, John F. Quinn and Thomas P. Davis

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10194

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      A novel experimental procedure is presented that allowed probing of reversible addition–fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) free-radical polymerizations for long-lived species. The new experimental sequence consisted of γ irradiation of a mixture of initial RAFT agent (cumyl dithiobenzoate) and monomer at ambient temperature, a subsequent predetermined waiting period without initiation source also at ambient temperature, and then heating of the reaction mixture to a significantly higher temperature. After each sequence step, the monomer conversion and molecular weight distribution were determined, indicating that controlled polymer formation occurs only during the heating period. The results indicated that stable intermediates (either radical or nonradical in nature) are present in such experiments because thermal self-initiation of the monomer can be excluded as the reason for polymer formation.

    15. Free-radical copolymerization of styrene and m-isopropenyl-α,α′-dimethylbenzyl isocyanate studied by 1H NMR kinetic experiments (pages 1064–1074)

      Leonie Barner, Christopher Barner-Kowollik and Thomas P. Davis

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10195

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      The free-radical copolymerization of m-isopropenyl-α,α′-dimethylbenzyl isocyanate (TMI) and styrene was studied with 1H NMR kinetic experiments at 70 °C. Data for the monomer conversion versus time were used to determine the ratio kp × kt−0.5 for various comonomer mixture compositions (where kp is the propagation rate coefficient and kt is the termination rate coefficient). The ratio kp × kt−0.5 varied from 25.9 × 10−3 L0.5 mol−0.5 s−0.5 for pure styrene to 2.03 × 10−3 L0.5 mol−0.5 s−0.5 for 73 mol % TMI, indicating a significant decrease in the rate of polymerization with increasing TMI content in the reaction mixture.

    16. Polymerization of phenylacetylene by iridium catalysts (pages 1075–1080)

      Keiji Kanki, Yoshihiko Misumi and Toshio Masuda

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10184

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      Polymerization of phenylacetylene (PA) with [(cod)IrCl]2-based catalysts (cod: 1,5-cyclooctadiene) was examined. The [(cod)IrCl]2/n-BuLi and [(cod)IrCl]2/Ph2C[DOUBLE BOND]C(Ph)Li systems induced the polymerization of PA to produce polymers with a number-average molecular weight (Mn) of around several thousand in rather low yields. On the other hand, the catalyst composed of [(cod)IrCl]2, norbornadiene (nbd), Ph3P, and Ph2C[DOUBLE BOND]C(Ph)Li (molar ratio of 1:1:1.1:2) produced polymer in a high yield (ca. 80%) in toluene at 0 °C. The resulting polymer showed a bimodal gel permeation chromatographic profile (Mn = 209,000 and 4300; ratio: 81/19). On the basis of these findings, the presence of two active species, that is, Ir complexes with nbd and cod, are discussed.

    17. Mechanism of coupling reactions of polystyryllithium with dihalomethanes (pages 1081–1091)

      Eric S. Tillman and Thieo E. Hogen-Esch

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10172

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      The dibromomethane-mediated coupling of polystyryllithium (PSLi) gives a high degree of coupling but generates 1,2-diphenyl and 1,3-diphenyl linkages. Fluorescence measurements indicate the presence of very small amounts of styrenic chain ends. This is consistent with the presence of bromomethyl and bromobenzyl end groups formed by displacement and lithium–bromine exchange reactions, respectively. This is followed by PSLi-mediated elimination to give α-methylstyrene and β-methylstyrene end groups. Although coupling reactions of PSLi with dichloromethane show no coupling at all, diiodomethane is a much better coupling agent, significantly suppressing side fractions of styrenic end groups.

    18. Synthesis and properties of organosoluble poly(amide imide imide)s based on tetraimide dicarboxylic acid condensed from 4,4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride, 4,4′-oxydianiline, and trimellitic anhydride and various aromatic diamines (pages 1092–1102)

      Chin-Ping Yang, Ruei-Shin Chen and Ming-Jui Wang

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10203

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      A novel tetraimide dicarboxylic acid was synthesized from 4,4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride, 4,4′-oxydianiline, and trimellitic anhydride in a 1/2/2 molar ratio. A series of poly(amide imide imide)s were prepared from the diacid with various aromatic diamines by direct polycondensation. All of the polymers were readily soluble in a variety of solvents at room temperature. These polymers were characterized by good film-forming ability, a wide temperature range between the glass-transition and decomposition temperatures, excellent thermal stability, and good mechanical properties.

    19. Preparation of water-soluble, syndiotacticity-rich, low molecular weight poly(vinyl alcohol) microfibrils in high yields with the low-temperature polymerization of vinyl pivalate in tetrahydrofuran and saponification (pages 1103–1111)

      Jeong Hyun Yeum, Byung Chul Ji, Chul Joo Lee, Ji Youl Lee, Sang-Seob Lee, Sam Soo Kim, Joon Ho Kim and Won Seok Lyoo

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10199

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      The low-temperature solution polymerization of vinyl pivalate (VPi) in tetrahydrofuran with 2,2′-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) proved to successful in obtaining water-soluble poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with a number-average degree of polymerization of 300–900, a syndiotactic dyad content of 60–63%, and a conversion of VPi into poly(vinyl pivalate) of over 75%. Despite the low molecular weight of PVA, water-soluble PVA microfibrillar fibers were prepared because of the high level of syndiotacticity.

    20. Synthesis and characterization of temperature- and pH-sensitive hydrogels based on poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and poly(D,L-lactide) (pages 1112–1121)

      Chau-Hui Wang and Ging-Ho Hsiue

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10201

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      A novel series of temperature- and pH-sensitive hydrogels based on poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOz) and three-arm poly(D,L-lactide) (3PLA) were synthesized via photocopolymerization. For the creation of polymeric networks, two types of macromers terminated with methacrylate groups were prepared: poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) dimethacrylate (PEOz-DMA) and three-arm poly(D,L-lactide) trimethacrylate (3PLA-TMA. All the PEOz/3PLA hydrogels provided high water retention capacity and exhibited reversible swelling–shrinking behavior in response to temperature and pH variations. This study effectively proves that this unique combination of water swellability and biodegradability provides hydrogels with a much wider range of applications in biomedical fields.

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    1. Novel bipolar light-emitting copolymer containing triazole and triphenylamine moieties (pages 1122–1126)

      Ze Liu, Yanguang Zhang, Yufeng Hu, Guangping Su, Dongge Ma, Lixiang Wang, Xiabin Jing and Fosong Wang

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10176

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      A novel triazole- and triphenylamine-containing, poly(p-phenylenevinylene)-based bipolar light-emitting copolymer, poly[4-phenyl-3,5-bi(p-vinylenephenyl)-1,2,4-triazole-alt-4,4-bi(p-vinylenephenyl)-p-2′-ethylhexyloxylphenylamine] (TAZ–TPA–PPV), has been synthesized by a Wittig reaction. The polymer yields a bright green-yellow emission and has good solubility, excellent film-forming ability, and high thermal stability, properties which make it a good candidate for polymeric light-emitting diodes.

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    1. Synthesis and structural analysis of functionalized poly (ϵ-caprolactone)-based three-arm star polymers (pages 1127–1141)

      Meidong Lang, Renee Puisan Wong and Chih-Chang Chu

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10171

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      Hydroxyl-functionalized three-arm poly(ϵ-caprolactone)s (PGCL-OHs; III) were synthesized by the ring-opening polymerization of ϵ-caprolactone (I) in the presence of glycerol (II; as the core) and stannous octoate. The effect of the feed ratio of ϵ-caprolactone to glycerol on the ring-opening polymerization was studied. These three-arm PGCL-OHs were then converted into double-bond-functionalized three-arm poly(ϵ-caprolactone)s (PGCL-Ma's; V) by the reaction of PGCL-OH with maleic anhydride (IV) in the melt at 130 °C. The quantitative conversion of hydroxyl functionality was achieved at a low molecular weight. The resulting PGCL-OH and PGCL-Ma were characterized with gel permeation chromatography, Fourier transform infrared, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and differential scanning calorimetry.

    2. Controlled ring-opening polymerization of propylene oxide catalyzed by double metal-cyanide complex (pages 1142–1150)

      Yi-Jun Huang, Guo-Rong Qi and Yu-Hua Wang

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10183

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      Polyether polyols of moderate molecular weight having low unsaturation (<0.015 meq/g) can be readily prepared by a double metal-cyanide complex. The molecular weight of polymer is entirely controlled by a reacted monomer-to-initiator ratio. The reaction rate increases with an increase in the catalyst amount and decreases with a rising initiator concentration. Interestingly, the polymers prepared with stepwise addition of monomer exhibit a narrower molecular weight distribution as compared with those prepared with one-step addition of monomer. Various compounds containing active hydrogens, except basic compounds and low-carbon carboxylic acid, may be used as initiators. The reaction rate increases with an increasing catalyst amount and decreases with a rising initiator concentration. Polymerization involves a rapid exchange equilibrium. It was also proven that chain termination of this catalytic system is reversible or temporary. 13C NMR analysis showed that the polymer has a random distribution of the configurational sequences and head-to-tail regiosequence.

    3. Radical copolymerization behavior of a highly fluorinated cyclic olefin with vinyl ether (pages 1151–1156)

      Shozo Nishida, Haruo Nishida and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10198

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      The copolymerization of a highly fluorinated cyclic monomer, octafluorocyclopentene (OFCPE, M1), with ethyl vinyl ether (EVE, M2) was investigated with a radical initiator in bulk. The copolymer composition was determined from 1H NMR spectra and elemental analysis data. The monomer reactivity ratios were estimated by the Yamada–Itahashi–Otsu nonlinear least-squares procedure as r1,OFCPE = −0.008 ± 0.010 and r2,EVE = 0.192 ± 0.015. Incorporation of the OFCPE units into the copolymer led to an increase in the glass-transition point.

    4. Synthesis and miscibility studies of [60]fullerenated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pages 1157–1166)

      H. W. Goh, S. H. Goh and G. Q. Xu

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10202

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      [60]Fullerenated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)s were synthesized using the Hawker's method. The solubility of the products was highly dependent on the reaction conditions and their C60 contents. The miscibility behavior of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with low C60 loading was very similar to that of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate).

    5. Synthesis of dendronized, chiral conjugated polymers with appendant Fréchet-type dendrons (pages 1167–1172)

      Jing Jiang, Hong-Wei Liu, You-Liang Zhao, Chuan-Fu Chen and Fu Xi

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10205

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      A novel series of chiral binaphthyl-based polyarylenes with appendant Fréchet-type poly(aryl ether) dendrons were synthesized with Suzuki polycondensation from chiral 2,2′-dihydroxy-1,1′-binaphthyl and p-phenylene diboronic acid, and they were characterized with laser light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and ultraviolet–visible, circular dichroism, and fluorescence spectra.

    6. Synthesis and properties of photoluminescent polymers bearing electron-facilitating oxadiazole derivative side groups (pages 1173–1183)

      J. J. Kim, K.-S. Kim, S. Baek, H. C. Kim and M. Ree

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10187

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      Poly(p-divinylene phenylene) derivatives bearing fluorene and carbazole units on the backbone and 5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties as electron-facilitating side groups were synthesized. These polymers are soluble in organic solvents and give films of good quality. They are stable beyond 375 °C, emit blue and blue-green light, and have quantum yields of 38–79% in solution and 1–24% in film, depending on the backbone and side group. These polymers are potential candidates for the fabrication of light-emitting devices.

    7. Copolymerization of (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-yl)methyl methacrylate with alkyl methacrylates: Reactivity ratios and copolymer characterization (pages 1184–1191)

      Mehmet Coşkun and Zülfi̇ye İlter

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10174

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      The radical copolymerizations of (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-yl-)methyl methacrylate (PDMMA) with methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethyl methacrylate (EMA), and butyl methacrylate (BMA) were studied in dioxane at 60 °C with benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. The glass-transition temperatures of poly(PDMMA-co-MMA), poly(PDMMA-co-EMA), and poly(PDMMA-co-BMA) varied from 130 to 138 °C, from 100 to 134 °C, and from 63 to 122 °C, respectively, depending on the copolymer composition. Along with some physicochemical properties and thermal stability investigations of the copolymers, the monomer reactivity ratios were also determined with the conventional Finemann–Ross and Kelen–Tüdös linearization methods.

    8. Synthesis of statistical glycidyl methacrylate-n-vinyl pyrrolidone copolymers and their reaction with naproxen (pages 1192–1199)

      Manuel Sánchez-Chaves, Gerardo Martínez, Enrique López Madruga and Carmen Fernández-Monreal

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10196

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      Chemical reactions through the use of glycidyl functional groups were satisfactorily carried out on glycidyl methacrylate/N-vinylpyrrolidone (VPD) copolymers using a bioactive carboxylic acid, 6-methoxy-α-methyl-2-naphthaleneacetic acid (naproxen).

    9. Photochemical modification of polymer surface by the pendant photobase generator containing oxime-urethane groups and its application to an image-recording material (pages 1200–1207)

      Kyu Ho Chae and Hee Jung Jang

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.10200

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      The surface of the polymer film containing oxime-urethane groups became hydrophilic with irradiation as a result of the formation of pendant amino groups. The film was dyed with acid dye after treatment of the irradiated film with HCl. Various colors were developed depending on the acid dye as the developer. The polymer containing oxime-urethane groups, which generate amino groups photochemically, can be used as a colored image-recording material.

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