Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 42 Issue 10

15 May 2004

Volume 42, Issue 10

Pages 2303–2576

  1. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Articles
    3. Erratum
    1. Novel, biodegradable, functional poly(ester-carbonate)s by copolymerization of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline with cyclic carbonate bearing a pendent carboxylic group (pages 2303–2312)

      Ren-Shen Lee, Jen-Ming Yang and Tz-Feng Lin

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20052

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      A novel series of biodegradable, functional poly(ester-carbonate)s were obtained by the direct polycondensation reaction of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline with cyclic carbonate bearing pendent carboxylic groups. The copolymers synthesized exhibited moderate number-average molecular weights (Mn's). In vitro degradation of these poly(N-CBz-Hpr-co-MBC)s was evaluated from weight-loss measurements and the change of Mn and the molecular weight distribution.

    2. Facile synthesis of AB2-type miktoarm star polymers through the combination of atom transfer radical polymerization and ring-opening polymerization (pages 2313–2320)

      T. Erdogan, Z. Ozyurek, G. Hizal and U. Tunca

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20067

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      A novel miktofunctional initiator (1), 2-hydroxyethyl 3-[(2-bromopropanoyl)oxy]-2-{[(2-bromopropanoyl)oxy]methyl}-2-methyl-propanoate, possessing one initiating site for ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and two initiating sites for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), was synthesized in a three-step reaction sequence. This initiator was first used in the ROP of ϵ-caprolactone, and this led to a corresponding polymer with secondary bromide end groups. The obtained poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) was then used as a macroinitiator for the ATRP of tert-butyl acrylate or methyl methacrylate, and this resulted in AB2-type PCL–[poly(tert-butyl acrylate)]2 or PCL–[poly(methyl methacrylate)]2 miktoarm star polymers with controlled molecular weights and low polydispersities (weight-average molecular weight/number-average molecular weight < 1.23) via the ROP–ATRP sequence.

    3. Copolycondensation of various compositions of isophthalic acid and terephthalic acid with hydroquinones or bisphenols by tosyl chloride/dimethylformamide/pyridine (pages 2321–2328)

      Fukuji Higashi, Tomohiro Takakura and Yasuyuki Sumi

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20070

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      Significant effects of the compositions of dicarboxylic acids on copolycondensations were examined with respect to the associations of the acids and activated diacids from distributions of the preformed oligomers and of the melting points and IR spectra of the mixtures of their dimethyl esters prepared by the quenching of solutions of the mixtures of the activated diacids with methanol.

    4. Novel conducting polymer poly[bis(phenylamino)disulfide]: Synthesis, characterization, and properties (pages 2329–2339)

      Yu-Zhi Su, Yong-Ping Niu, Yi-Zhi Xiao, Min Xiao, Zhao-Xi Liang and Ke-Cheng Gong

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20072

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      The synthesis, characterization, and properties of a novel conducting polymer, poly[bis(phenylamino)disulfide], were investigated. The cyclic voltammetry indicated that the intramolecular self-catalyzed effects occurred between the polyaniline of the conducting main chain and the disulfide bond of the side chain in this polymer. These results suggested that this polymer might be a candidate material for energy-storage devices.

    5. Examination of the lignin content in a softwood and a hardwood decayed by a brown-rot fungus with the acetyl bromide method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (pages 2340–2346)

      K. K. Pandey and A. J. Pitman

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20071

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      Lignin modification in Pinus sylvestris L. and Fagus sylvatica L. wood decayed by the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana was investigated with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and the acetyl bromide method. The polysaccharide components of the wood were selectively degraded as decay progressed. Polysaccharide/lignin ratios, estimated with FTIR, correlated well with the lignin contents determined by the acetyl bromide method.

    6. Homologous series of alkylsilylphenyl-substituted poly (p-phenylenevinylene)s for light-emitting diodes (pages 2347–2355)

      Sung-Ho Jin, Dae-Sung Koo, Hwang-Un Seo, Young-Inn Kim, Yeong-Soon Gal and Dong-Kyu Park

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20084

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      Substituent-induced electroluminescence polymers were synthesized according to the Gilch polymerization method. The band gap and spectroscopic data were tuned by the dimethyldodecylsilyl substituent being changed from the ortho position to the para position in the phenyl side group along the polymer backbone. Double-layer light-emitting diodes with an indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/polymer/Al configuration were fabricated with these polymers. The turn-on voltages and the maximum brightness of poly[2-(2-dimethyldodecylsilylphenyl)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] [(o-R3Si)PhPPV], poly[2-(3-dimethyldodecylsilylphenyl)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] [(m-R3Si)PhPPV], and poly[2-(4-dimethyldodecylsilylphenyl)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] [(p-R3Si)PhPPV] were 6.5–8.7 V and 1986–5895 cd/m2, respectively.

    7. Synthesis and characterization of a multiarm star polymer (pages 2356–2364)

      Sun Xiaoying, Yang Xiaohui, Liu Yunhang and Wang Xinling

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20083

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      A novel multiarm star polymer was synthesized through the grafting of oligo polyglycol onto the core of hyperbranched polyglycerol. The grafting of arms onto hyperbranched polyglycerol improved its dimensional stability, and this may be helpful for its applications.

    8. Copolymers of phenylacetylene and para-nitrophenylacetylene with nonlinear optical properties: Further insight on the conformational structure (pages 2365–2376)

      Takeyuki Sone, Rosaria D'Amato, Yasuteru Mawatari, Masayoshi Tabata, Anita Furlani and Maria Vittoria Russo

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20044

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      The copolymerization reactions of phenylacetylene and para-nitrophenylacetylene were developed in the presence of Rh(I) catalysts. The copolymers structure was investigated, and a prevalent cis–transoidal conformation was assessed. Cis–trans isomerization occurred by compression of the pristine copolymers. The formation of stabilized radicals in p-nitrophenylacetylene trans sequences was evinced by electron spin resonance and diffuse reflective ultraviolet–visible spectroscopic studies and was confirmed by computer simulation and conformational analysis.

    9. Preparation and properties of new polyimides and polyamides based on 1,4-bis(4-amino-2-trifluoromethylphenoxy)naphthalene (pages 2377–2394)

      Sheng-Huei Hsiao, Chin-Ping Yang and Sheng-Ching Huang

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20075

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      A novel, trifluoromethyl-substituted, bis(ether amine) monomer, 1,4-bis(4-amino-2-trifluoromethylphenoxy)naphthalene, was synthesized and was used to prepare several novel, fluorinated polyimides and polyamides. These polyimides and polyamides were characterized by high solubility, good film-forming ability, moderate-to-high thermal stability, and good mechanical properties.

    10. Melt-processable thermosetting polyimide: Synthesis, characterization, fusibility, and property (pages 2395–2404)

      T. Kuroki, A. Shibuya, M. Toriida and S. Tamai

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20079

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      To obtain a melt-processable thermosetting polyimide having a high glass-transition temperature (Tg) and good solvent resistance, the effect of introducing a crosslinkable agent into the polymer chain ends of the melt-processable polyimide on its physical properties was studied. The polyimide (calculated number-average molecular weight: 11,600 g/mol) partially capped with the crosslinkable agent exhibited good melt flowability at the processing temperature of 360 °C, and the molded part of this resin was strong and tough. In addition, the cured part exhibited high Tg and good solvent resistance.

    11. Synthesis of hydrophilic/CO2-philic poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(1,1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluorodecyl acrylate) block copolymers via controlled/living radical polymerizations and their properties in liquid and supercritical CO2 (pages 2405–2415)

      Zhi Ma and Patrick Lacroix-Desmazes

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20117

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      Hydrophilic/CO2-philic poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(1,1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluorodecyl acrylate) block copolymers were synthesized via reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, iodine transfer polymerization, and atom transfer radical polymerization in the presence of either degenerative transfer agents or a macroinitiator based on poly(ethylene oxide). The properties of the macromolecular surfactants were investigated through the determination of the cloud points in neat liquid and supercritical CO2 and through the formation of water-in-CO2 emulsions.

    12. Novel, organosoluble, light-colored fluorinated polyimides based on 2,2′-bis(4-amino-2-trifluoromethylphenoxy)biphenyl or 2,2′-bis(4-amino-2-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-1,1′-binaphthyl (pages 2416–2431)

      Chin-Ping Yang, Sheng-Huei Hsiao, Che-Yu Tsai and Guey-Sheng Liou

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20116

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      Two series of fluorinated polyimides were prepared by a conventional, two-step polycondensation of 2,2′-bis(4-amino-2-trifluoromethylphenoxy)biphenyl and 2,2′-bis(4-amino-2-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-1,1′-binaphthyl, respectively, with aromatic dianhydrides. The synthesized polyimides were characterized by a solubility test and thermal, optical, and dielectric property measurements.

    13. Reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization of sterically hindered monomers: Toward well-defined rod/coil architectures (pages 2432–2443)

      Zachary Szablan, Andrew Ah Toy, Thomas P. Davis, Xiaojuan Hao, Martina H. Stenzel and Christopher Barner-Kowollik

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20098

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      The sterically hindered monomers dibutyl itaconate (DBI) and dicyclohexyl itaconate (DCHI) were polymerized via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) free-radical polymerization. S,S′-Bis(α,α′-dimethyl-α″-acetic acid) trithiocarbonate, cumyl dithiobenzoate, and cumyl phenyldithioacetate have been used as RAFT agents to mediate a series of polymerizations at 65 °C yielding rod polymers ranging in number average molecular weight from 9000 to 92,000 g mol−1. DCHI rod polymers generated via the RAFT process were subsequently reinitiated in the presence of styrene to produce a range of BAAB and A-B rod-coil block copolymers of molecular weights up to 164,000 g mol−1.

    14. Metal-induced optical sensing and optical switching in poly(pyridyl phenylene) (pages 2444–2450)

      Jongho Na, Young-Shin Kim, Won Ho Park and Taek Seung Lee

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20143

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      The studied polymer had a number-average molecular weight of 4000 and excellent solubility in conventional organic solvents; this suggested the effect of the incorporation of dialkoxy side chains. A metallochromic phenomenon with ferric ions was clearly observed in spin-coated films and solutions of the polymer. The response of the absorption and the fluorescence changes of the polymer films were rapid and were reproduced more than 15 times. A lightly bound intermolecular interaction between the pyridine ligand and cation was presumed to be responsible for the facile optical switching property of the polymer film.

    15. Ion-exchange resins. III. Functionalization–morphology correlations in the synthesis of some macroporous, strong basic anion exchangers and uranium-sorption properties evaluation (pages 2451–2461)

      Ecaterina Stela Dragan, Ecaterina Avram, Damian Axente and Cristina Marcu

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20106

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      The synthesis and characterization of some macroporous, strong basic anion exchangers (SBAEs), with an average pore radius higher than 500 Å, and the evaluation of their sorption properties for uranyl chlorocomplexes from HCl solutions are reported. Finely divided, macroporous styrene–divinylbenzene (S–DVB) copolymers with a narrow distribution of bead sizes, diameters within the range of 90–200 μm, were prepared with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol as a porogen at a dilution of monomers D ≥ 0.55 mL/mL. Chloromethyl groups were introduced with (CH2O)n/Me3SiCl as a chloromethylation agent in the presence of FeCl3 as a catalyst [chloromethylated copolymers (CMCs) sample], and amination was performed with diethyl-2-hydroxyethylamine. Structural and morphological characteristics were determined after every functionalization step of the macroporous network.

    16. Novel synthesis of polyethylene–poly(dimethylsiloxane) copolymers with a metallocene catalyst (pages 2462–2473)

      Andrés E. Ciolino, Griselda Barrera Galland, María Luján Ferreira and Marcelo A. Villar

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20066

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      Polyethylene–poly(dimethylsiloxane) copolymers were synthesized in solution from an ethylene monomer and an ω-vinyl poly(dimethylsiloxane) macromonomer at 363 and 383 K with EtInd2ZrCl2/methylaluminoxane as a catalyst. The copolymers obtained were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H and 13C NMR, size exclusion chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. The rheological properties of the molten polymers were determined under dynamic shear flow tests at small-amplitude oscillations, whereas the physical arrangement of the phase domains was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray (EDX).

    17. 13Carbon nuclear magnetic resonance of ethylene–propylene–1-hexene terpolymers (pages 2474–2482)

      Fernanda F. Nunes Escher and Griselda Barrera Galland

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20097

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      In this paper, we report the complete 13C NMR characterization of a series of ethylene-propylene-1-hexene terpolymers obtained with the metallocenic system rac-ethylene bisindenyl zirconium dichloride, using different comonomer ratios. A detailed study of 13C NMR chemical shifts, triad sequence distributions, monomer average sequence lengths, and reactivity ratios for these terpolymers is presented.

    18. Living radical polymerization. II. Improved atom transfer radical polymerization of acrylamide in aqueous glycerol media with a novel pentamethyldiethylenetriamine-based soluble copper(I) complex catalyst system (pages 2483–2494)

      Suresh K. Jewrajka and Broja M. Mandal

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20062

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      The atom transfer radical polymerization of acrylamide in a glycerol/water medium at 130 °C with 2-halopropionamide as an initiator, CuX (X = Cl or Br) as a catalyst, and pentamethyldiethylenetriamine as a ligand was satisfactory when alkali halide (∼1 mol/dm3) and CuX2 (≥ 20 mol % CuX) were added to the system externally.

    19. Polyelectrolyte complexes. VI. Polycation structure, polyanion molar mass, and polyion concentration effects on complex nanoparticles based on poly(sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate) (pages 2495–2505)

      Ecaterina Stela Dragan and Simona Schwarz

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20110

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      The formation and characterization of some interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) nanoparticles based on poly(sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate) (NaPAMPS), as a function of the polycation structure, polyanion molar mass, and polyion concentration, were followed in this work. Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and two polycations (PC) containing (N,N-dimethyl-2-hydroxypropyleneammonium chloride) units in the backbone (PCA5 and PCA5D1) were employed as starting polyions. IPECs nanoparticle sizes, Rh, were influenced by the polycation structure only before the complex stoichiometry, being higher for the more hydrophilic polycations (PCA5 and PCA5D1) and were almost independent on this factor after that, at a flow rate of the added polyion of about 0.28 mL × (mL PC)−1 × h−1.

    20. Reaction of carbon dioxide with glycidol: The synthesis of a novel hyperbranched oligomer with a carbonate main chain with a hydroxyl terminal (pages 2506–2511)

      Suguru Motokucho, Atsushi Sudo, Fumio Sanda and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20081

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      A novel branched polycarbonate with a hydroxyl group at the chain end was synthesized by the copolymerization of glycidol with carbon dioxide (CO2). The copolymerization was carried out with 5 mol % of an alkali metal halide or a quaternary ammonium salt as a catalyst under atmospheric CO2.

    21. Copolymerization of ethylene with 1-hexene over metallocene catalyst supported on complex of magnesium chloride with tetrahydrofuran (pages 2512–2519)

      Krystyna Czaja, Marzena Białek and Alicja Utrata

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20099

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      The study of the ethylene/1-hexene copolymerization over zirconocene catalyst, bis(cyclopentadienyl)zirconium dichloride (Cp2ZrCl2)/methylaluminoxane (MAO), anchored on complex of magnesium chloride with tetrahydrofuran [MgCl2(THF)2] support, was carried out. The influence of 1-hexene concentration in the feed on catalyst productivity and comonomer reactivity as well as other properties was investigated. Additionally, the effect of the support modification by the organoaluminum compounds [(MAO, trimethylaluminum (AlMe3), or diethylaluminum chloride (Et2AlCl)] on the behavior of MgCl2(THF)2/Cp2ZrCl2/MAO catalyst in the copolymerization process and on the properties of the copolymers was explored. Finally, with the successive self-nucleation/annealing procedure, the heterogeneity of obtained copolymers was investigated.

    22. Synthesis, complex formation, and dilute-solution associative behavior of linear poly(methacrylic acid)-graft-poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (pages 2520–2533)

      Garrett D. Poe and Charles L. McCormick

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20107

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      Linear poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) was modified with poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOZO) via statistical coupling reactions in organic media to prepare a series of PMA-graft-PEOZO copolymers. Dilute-solution, PMA–PEOZO intramolecular associations were monitored with potentiometric titrations, NMR spin–spin relaxation, dynamic light scattering, and low-shear rheometry as a function of pH. The highest PEOZO incorporation induced the onset of intramolecular associations between PEOZO units along the copolymer chains, and a model was proposed to explain the observed behavior.

    23. Ethylene polymerization by bis(salicylaldiminate)nickel(II)/aluminoxane catalysts (pages 2534–2542)

      Carlo Carlini, Alessandro Macinai, Francesco Masi, Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti, Roberto Santi, Glauco Sbrana and Anna Sommazzi

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20102

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      The homopolymerization of ethylene by using different catalytic systems based on dinitro-substituted bis(salicylaldiminate)nickel(II) precursors such as bis[3,5-dinitro-N(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)]nickel(II) (XI) and bis[3,5-dinitro-N(phenyl)]nickel(II) (X) in combination with organoaluminum compounds was investigated. In particular, the catalytic performances were studied as a function of the main reaction parameters, such as temperature, pressure, Al/Ni molar ratio, and duration. Methylaluminoxane resulted in the best co-catalyst. Activities up to 200 kg polyethylene/(mol Ni × h) to give a linear high-molecular-weight polymer were achieved. The influence of the bulkiness of the substituents on the N-aryl group of the aldimine ligand was also checked; it resulted in a determinant for catalytic activity rather than for polymer characteristics.

    24. Synthesis and properties of fluorine-containing polyethers with pendant hydroxyl groups by the polyaddition of bis(epoxide)s with diols (pages 2543–2550)

      Yousuke Konno, Hiroto Kudo, Atsushi Kameyama and Tadatomi Nishikubo

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20074

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      Polyadditions of certain fluorine-containing bis(epoxide)s with fluorine-containing diols were carried out to give the corresponding fluorine-containing polyethers with pendant hydroxyl groups. The transmittance of the resulting polymers was measured by a vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer. The chemical modification of polyethers with pendant hydroxyl groups was also examined.

    25. Synthesis of metal/polymer colloidal composites by the tailored deposition of silver onto porous polymer microspheres (pages 2551–2557)

      Jin-Woong Kim, Jung-Eun Lee, Jee-Hyun Ryu, Jong-Suk Lee, Su-Jin Kim, Sang-Hoon Han, Ih-Seop Chang, Hak-Hee Kang and Kyung-Do Suh

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20125

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      A new colloidal silver system is presented in which a fine colloidal silver is in situ deposited onto hydroxyl-group-functionalized porous poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) [poly(EGDMA)] microspheres. The results of this study demonstrate that the structurally controlled surface of the poly(EGDMA) microspheres plays an important role in effectively anchoring colloidal silver particles and displaying their biological function. This technique presents a new avenue for advanced biological materials, particularly those for preservation applications.

    26. Reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate with 2-cyanoprop-2-yl 1-dithionaphthalate as a chain-transfer agent (pages 2558–2565)

      Jian Zhu, Di Zhou, Xiulin Zhu and Gaojian Chen

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20119

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      The reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerizations of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), both in bulk and in a solvent, were studied with 2-cyanoprop-2-yl 1-dithionaphthalate (CPDN) as a RAFT agent in the presence of 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile. The results for both types of polymerizations showed that GMA could be polymerized in a controlled way by RAFT polymerization with CPDN as a RAFT agent. The epoxy group remained intact in the polymers after the RAFT polymerization of GMA, as indicated by the 1H NMR spectrum.

    27. Polymeric stationary phase, based on (R,R)-tartramide and bisphenol S, with potential chiral properties (pages 2566–2574)

      T. Jabłońska-Pikus, W. Charmas, B. Podkościelna and B. Gawdzik

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20126

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      A new polymeric stationary phase with potential chiral properties, obtained by the chemical modification of the parent copolymer of dimethacrylate esters of bisphenol S and divinylbenzene, is presented. Hydroxyl functional groups present in the copolymer chemical structure are blocked by optically active selectors of (R,R)-tartramide derivatives. The influence of the chemical modification of the parent copolymer on its porous structure has been studied.

  2. Erratum

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    2. Articles
    3. Erratum
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