Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 42 Issue 22

15 November 2004

Volume 42, Issue 22

Pages 5561–5845

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      Copolymerization of carbon dioxide and epoxide (pages 5561–5573)

      Hiroshi Sugimoto and Shohei Inoue

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20319

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      The alternating copolymerization of carbon dioxide and epoxide to produce polycarbonate has attracted the attention of many chemists because it is one of the most promising methodologies for the utilization of carbon dioxide as a safe, clean, and abundant raw material in synthetic chemistry. Recent development of catalysts for alternating copolymerization is based on the rational design of metal complexes, particularly complexes of transition metals with well-defined structures.

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    1. Thermal and X-ray powder diffraction studies of aliphatic polyester dendrimers (pages 5574–5586)

      Jarmo Ropponen, Tero Tuuttila, Manu Lahtinen, Sami Nummelin and Kari Rissanen

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20367

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      The thermal stability and crystallinity of 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol-, 1,5-pentanediol-, and 1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl)ethane-based 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid polyester dendrimers showed opposite trends among the generations. The first generation was highly crystalline but thermally the least stable, the second and third generations were semicrystalline, and the fourth generation was completely amorphous but thermally the most stable.

    2. Comparative study of 2-amino and 3-aminobenzoic acid copolymerization with aniline synthesis and copolymer properties (pages 5587–5599)

      Horacio J. Salavagione, Diego F. Acevedo, Maria C. Miras, Artur J. Motheo and Cesar A. Barbero

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20409

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      The copolymerization of z-aminobenzoic and 3-aminobenzoic acid with aniline renders conductive copolymers. It is found that the copolymerization reactivities, and the related properties of the copolymers, are strongly affected by the position of the carboxylic group in the aminobenzoic acid.

    3. Copolymerization of 3-buten-1-ol and propylene with an isospecific zirconocene/methylaluminoxane catalyst (pages 5600–5607)

      Hideaki Hagihara, Kenji Tsuchihara, Junichi Sugiyama, Kazuhiko Takeuchi and Takeshi Shiono

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20404

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      The copolymerization of propylene and 3-buten-1-ol protected with alkylaluminum was conducted with an isospecific zirconocene catalyst, combined with methylaluminoxane as a cocatalyst, in the presence of additional trimethylaluminum or H2 as the chain-transfer reagent. The results indicated that end-hydroxylated polypropylene was obtained in the presence of the chain-transfer reagents because of the formation of dormant species after the insertion of the 3-buten-1-ol-based monomer followed by chain-transfer reactions. The selectivity of the chain-transfer reactions was influenced by the alkylaluminum protecting the comonomer and the catalyst structure.

    4. Preparation and characterization of acrylic-based black particles of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) by dispersion polymerization for electrophoretic displays (pages 5608–5616)

      Dong-Guk Yu and Jeong Ho An

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20368

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      Ultrafine black particles, ranging in diameter from 1 to 3 μm, were prepared by dispersion polymerization in a methanol/water mixture with vinyl monomers, nonpolymerizable Sudan black B dyes, and fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled charge control additives.

    5. Synthesis and characterization of novel poly(cycloalkyl methacrylate) bearing fused-ring structure and its copolymers (pages 5617–5626)

      S. K. Asha, V. Deepthimol and M. Lekshmi

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20391

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      A new series of homo- and copolymers based on 8-hydroxymethyltricyclo[5.2.1.02,6]decane methacrylate (TCDMA) was synthesized via free-radical polymerization in toluene with benzoyl peroxide as an initiator at 80 °C. The composition of the comonomers was varied from 0 to 100% and their molecular weights were determined by gel permeation chromatography and viscosity methods. The composition analysis of both the copolymer series were determined by NMR.

    6. Synthesis and adsorption properties of gold nanoparticles within pores of surface-functional porous polymer microspheres (pages 5627–5635)

      Yong-Jin Kim, Jin-Woong Kim, Jung-Eun Lee, Jee-Hyun Ryu, Junoh Kim, Ih-Seop Chang and Kyung-Do Suh

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20397

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      Mesoporous polymer microspheres with gold (Au) nanoparticles inside their pores were prepared considering their surface functionality and porosity (in this study, poly (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-co-acrylonitrile), poly (EGDMA-co-AN) system). From this study, it was established that the porosity of the polymer microspheres is the most important factor that determines the distribution and adsorption amount of face-centered cubic (fcc) Au nanoparticles in the final products. Our study showed that the continuous adsorption of Au nanoparticles with the aid of the large surface area and surface interaction sites formed more favorably the Au/polymer composite microspheres.

    7. Intramolecular energy transferable (2,2-diphenylvinyl)phenyl substituted poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivative with efficient photoluminescence and electroluminescence (pages 5636–5646)

      Dong-Cheol Shin, Yun-Hi Kim, Hong You, Jae Gyu Jin and Soon-Ki Kwon

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20402

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      A poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) derivative containing a bulky (2, 2-diphenylvinyl)phenyl group in the side chain, EHDVP-PPV, was synthesized and characterized. The light-emitting diodes of ITO/PEDOT/EHDVP-PPV/LiF/Al showed yellow electroluminescence (λmax = 548 nm) with intensities of 6479 cd/m2. The maximum power efficiency of the devices was 0.729 lm/W with a turn-on voltage of 3.6 V.

    8. Free-radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate with a tetrafunctional peroxide initiator (pages 5647–5661)

      M. J. Scorah, R. Dhib and A. Penlidis

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20389

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      The performance of a novel tetrafunctional peroxide initiator was compared to a monofunctional counterpart [tert-butylperoxy 2-ethylhexyl carbonate (TBEC)] in the bulk free-radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate. The results showed that the tetrafunctional initiator produced a faster rate of polymerization compared to TBEC at an equivalent concentration but also generates polymer of a lower molecular weight. This trend is opposite to what has been observed in our previous study with styrene. When TBEC is used at a concentration four times that of JWEB50, it was found that both produced equal rates of polymerization and similar molecular weights.

    9. Synthesis of polyethylene with bimodal molecular weight distribution by supported iron-based catalyst (pages 5662–5669)

      Lidong Li and Qi Wang

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20399

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      Through immobilization of two iron-based complexes, [((2,6-MePh)N=C(Me))2C5H3N]FeCl2 (1) and [((2,6-iPrPh)N=C(Me))2C5H3N]FeCl2 (2), on SiO2 pretreated with tetraethylaluminoxane (TEAO), two supported iron-based catalysts, 1/TEAO/SiO2 (3) and 2/TEAO/SiO2 (4), were prepared. These two supported catalysts could prepare polyethylene with bimodal molecular weight distribution (MWD). Immobilization of catalyst could significantly improve molecular weight (MW) of high-MW fraction of the resultant polyethylene, as well as maintain bimodal MWD of polyethylene produced by the corresponding homogeneous catalyst. Such bimodal MWD of polyethylene produced by supported iron-based catalysts could be well tailored by varying polymerization conditions as shown in Figure 2.

    10. Dithiocarbamate mediated controlled/living free radical polymerization of methyl acrylate under 60Co γ-ray irradiation: Conjugation effect of N-group (pages 5670–5677)

      Daoben Hua, Ruke Bai, Weiqi Lu and Caiyuan Pan

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20394

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      The conjugation effect of the N-group of dithiocarbamate has been studied in living free radical polymerization of methyl acrylate under γ-ray irradiation. The results indicate that the polymerizations reveal good living characteristics in the presence of dithiocarbamates B, C, D, and E, with the conjugation structure of the N-aryl group; that the conjugation structure of the N-group plays an important role in the polymerization rate; and that the aromatic polycyclic group on the nitrogen atom leads to slow polymerization. In contrast, the polymerization with dithiocarbamate A cannot be controlled, and the obtained polymer has a broad molecular weight distribution or even crosslink occurs.

    11. Polymerization in magnetic field. XVI. Kinetic aspects regarding methyl methacrylate polymerization in high magnetic field (pages 5678–5686)

      Aurica P. Chiriac

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20337

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      The effect of a high magnetic field of 7 T in the reaction of methyl methacrylate polymerization is emphasized. The intervening magnetokinetic modifications are correlated with the system of radical initiation with benzoyl peroxide, 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile), 4,4′-azobis(4-cyanopentanoic acid), and 1,1′-azobis(cyclohexane-1-carbonitrile). The characterization of the synthesized polymers is correlated with the reaction conditions.

    12. Additional evidence of possible structural effect of diol units in preformed oligoesters on solution copolycondensation with x,y-dihydroxytoluenes and their isomers promoted by tosyl chloride/dimethylformamide/pyridine (pages 5687–5694)

      Fukuji Higashi and Shingo Tsubonouchi

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20338

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      The copolycondensation of a mixture of isophthalic and terephthalic acids first with x,y-dihydroxytoluenes and next with their isomers was studied from how the toluenes in the preformed oligomers reacted with the isomers. 1H NMR evaluated the results from sequence distributions in the resultant copolymers determined.

    13. Synthesis of iron oxide/poly(methyl methacrylate) composite latex particles: Nucleation mechanism and morphology (pages 5695–5705)

      Ping-Chieh Wang, Wen-Yen Chiu, Chia-Fen Lee and Tai-Horng Young

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20335

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      A magnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composite latex was prepared by soapless emulsion polymerization in the presence of ferrofluid, and the ferrofluid was prepared by means of a coprecipitation method. The effects of various polymerization parameters, such as the monomer concentration, ferrofluid content, and initiator concentration, on the conversion curve and particle size of the magnetic composite latex particles were examined in detail. The results showed that two nucleation mechanisms were involved according to the polymerization conditions. In the monomer-rich and less ferrofluid system, self-nucleation of PMMA was dominant over the entire course of emulsion polymerization. In the ferrofluidrich system, seeded emulsion polymerization was the main course to form the magnetic composite latex particles.

    14. Hollow latex particles as submicrometer reactors for polymerization in confined geometries (pages 5706–5713)

      Thorsten Brand, Kyle Ratinac, Jeffrey V. Castro and Robert G. Gilbert

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20422

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      A method was developed for free-radical polymerization in the confines of a hollow latex particle. Hollow particles were prepared via the dynamic swelling method from polystyrene seed and divinylbenzene and had hollows of 500–1000 nm. So that these hollow poly(divinylbenzene) particles could function as submicrometer reactors, the particles were filled with a monomer [N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM)] via the dispersion of the dried particles in the molten monomer. The monomer that was not contained in the hollows was removed by washing and gentle abrasion. Free-radical polymerization was then initiated by γ radiolysis in the solid state. Transmission electron microscopy showed that poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) was formed in the hollow interior of the particles, which functioned as submicrometer reactors.

    15. Grafting of maleic anhydride onto linear polyethylene: A Monte Carlo study (pages 5714–5724)

      Yutian Zhu, Ronghua Zhang and Wei Jiang

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20401

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      Monte Carlo simulation was employed to study the graft of maleic anhydride (MAH) onto linear polyethylene (PE-g-MAH). The resulting chain structure was studied in terms of bridged graft and branched graft. Simulation results indicated that major MAH monomers attached onto PE chains as branched graft at higher MAH content. However, at extremely low MAH content, the fraction of bridged graft was close to that of branched graft.

    16. Multicyclic polyethers derived from 1,1,1-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane and 2,6-dihalopyridines (pages 5725–5735)

      Hans R. Kricheldorf, Lali Vakhtangishvili and Gert Schwarz

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20411

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      Polycondensations of tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane with 2,6-difluoropyridine or dichloropyridine yielded cyclic and multicylic oligomers and polymers that were identified with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry up to 32,000 Da. According to the feed ratio of the monomers, the multicyclic polymers could possess functional groups (OH or C[BOND]X) or not.

    17. Associative block copolymers comprising poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and poly(ethylene oxide) end-functionalized with a fluorophilic or hydrophilic group. Synthesis and aqueous solution properties (pages 5736–5744)

      Ana N. Nedelcheva, Nikolay G. Vladimirov, Christo P. Novakov and Iliyana V. Berlinova

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20418

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      Diblock copolymers comprising poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) end-functionalized with a quaternary ammonium group (RQ) were synthesized by using well-defined RQ PEO macroazoinitiators. The radical termination occurred mainly by disproportionation, as confirmed by combining the data from size exclusion chromatography and rheology measurements. The copolymers differ in type of the terminal group [FQ = C8F17(CH3)2N+ or MQ = (CH3)3N+] and the length of blocks. Self-assembled species formed by both FQ and MQ modified block copolymers were detected by static light scattering measurements at 25 °C and above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The LCST of the block copolymers depended on the type of the RQ group and the length of the blocks. FQ-modified copolymers form elastic gels below and above the LCST. It was inferred that the FQ groups and the PNIPAM blocks form segregated microdomains that serve as junctions to maintain a viscoelastic network.

    18. Fluorescent poly(aryl ether)s containing benzo[g]phthalazine and benzo[g]isoquinoline moieties (pages 5745–5753)

      Ning Kang, Antisar R. Hlil and Allan S. Hay

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20414

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      The reaction of poly(aryl ether)s prepared from 2,3-bis(4-fluorobenzoyl)naphthalene with hydrazine or benzylamine yielded benzo[g]phthalazines or benz[g]isoquinolines, respectively. The conversion into heterocyclic structures resulted in an increase in the glass-transition temperatures, inherent viscosities, and apparent molecular weights, whereas the solubilities decreased. The diketone polymers were colorless, and the benzo[g]phthalazine- and benz[g]isoquinoline-containing polymers were yellow, with broad absorptions up to around 450 nm and with strong emission maxima around 550 nm.

    19. Synthesis and properties of biomimetic poly(L-glutamate)-b-poly(2-acryloyloxyethyllactoside)-b-poly(L-glutamate) triblock copolymers (pages 5754–5765)

      Chang-Ming Dong, Keith M. Faucher and Elliot L. Chaikof

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20421

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      A novel class of biomimetic glycopolymer–polypeptide triblock copolymers [poly(L-glutamate)–poly(2-acryloyloxyethyllactoside)–poly(L-glutamate)] was synthesized by the sequential atom transfer radical polymerization of a protected lactose-based glycomonomer and the ring-opening polymerization of β-benzyl-L-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride. The water-soluble triblock copolymers self-assembled into lactose-installed polymeric aggregates in aqueous solutions. Notably, this kind of aggregate may be useful as an artificial polyvalent ligand in the investigation of carbohydrate–protein recognition and for the design of site-specific drug-delivery systems.

    20. Highly organosoluble and flexible polyimides with color lightness and transparency based on 2,2-bis[4-(2-trifluoromethyl-4-aminophenoxy)-3,5-dimethylphenyl]propane (pages 5766–5774)

      Der-Jang Liaw and Feng-Chyuan Chang

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20326

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      A new diamine containing isopropylidene, methyl substituted arylene ether and trifluoromethyl groups, 2,2-bis[4-(2-trifluoromethyl-4-aminophenoxy)-3,5-dimethylphenyl]propane (BTADP), has been successfully prepared and used in a preparation of a series of highly organosoluble, lightcolor and transparency polyimides with better thermal stability by polycondensation with various aromatic tetracarboxylic dianhydrides in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc).

    21. Automated parallel investigations/optimizations of the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization of methyl methacrylate (pages 5775–5783)

      Martin W. M. Fijten, Michael A. R. Meier, Richard Hoogenboom and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20346

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      Picture of the Chemspeed Accelerator™ automated synthesizer platform with four reactor blocks and the 4 needle head. Left top: reproducibility test of the methyl methacrylate polymerization monitored by GPC. Left bottom: chain extension experiments monitored by automated MALDI TOFMS and GPC.

    22. Preparation of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)/polyester diblock copolymers and examination of the gel-to-sol transition (pages 5784–5793)

      Moon Suk Kim, Kwang Su Seo, Gilson Khang, Sun Hang Cho and Hai Bang Lee

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20430

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      The solution of diblock copolymers consisting of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) and polyester exhibited the phase transition from gel to sol with increasing temperature. The gel-to-sol transition moved as the polyester block length of the diblock copolymers changed. The gel-to-sol transition showed a dependence on the length of the polyester block segment.

    23. Atom transfer radical polymerization of ionic liquid 2-(1-butylimidazolium-3-yl)ethyl methacrylate tetrafluoroborate (pages 5794–5801)

      Shijie Ding, Huadong Tang, Maciej Radosz and Youqing Shen

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20423

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      Polymeric forms of ionic liquids may have many potential applications because of their high thermal stability and ionic nature. A well-defined poly(ionic liquid), poly[2-(1-butylimidazolium-3-yl)ethyl methacrylate tetrafluoroborate], was synthesized via the atom transfer radical polymerization of an ionic liquid monomer, 2-(1-butylimidazolium-3-yl)ethyl methacrylate tetrafluoroborate (BIMT). Copper chloride combined with chloride-based initiators was effective for the atom transfer radical polymerization of BIMT. The reaction conditions were optimized.

    24. Preparing a polystyrene-functionalized multiple-walled carbon nanotubes via covalently linking acyl chloride functionalities with living polystyryllithium (pages 5802–5810)

      Hsuan-Ming Huang, I-Chun Liu, Ching-Yu Chang, Hung-Chieh Tsai, Chuan-Hsiao Hsu and Raymond Chien-Chao Tsiang

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20424

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      A new method was developed for preparing polystyrene-functionalized multiple-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) through the termination of anionically synthesized living polystyryllithium with the acyl chloride functionalities on the MWNTs. The acyl chloride functionalities on the MWNTs were in turn obtained by the formation of carboxyls via chemical oxidation and their conversion into acyl chlorides. The polystyrene-functionalized MWNTs had good dispersion in common organic solvents, and this indicated good compatibility for the preparation of styrenic nanocomposite materials.

    25. Atom transfer radical polymerization initiated by N-bromosuccinimide (pages 5811–5816)

      Jianguo Jiang, Keda Zhang and Hong Zhou

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20351

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      N-Bromosuccinimide (NBS) was used as the initiator in the atom transfer radical polymerizations of styrene (St) and methyl methacrylate (MMA). The NBS/CuBr/bipyridine (bpy) system shows good controllability for both polymerizations and yields polymers with polydispersity indexes ranging from 1.18 to 1.25 for St and 1.14 to 1.41 for MMA, depending on the conditions used. The end-group analysis of poly(MMA) and polystyrene indicated the polymerization is initiated by the succinimidyl radicals formed from the redox reaction of NBS with CuBr/bpy.

    26. Initiation and kinetics of thiol–ene photopolymerizations without photoinitiators (pages 5817–5826)

      Neil B. Cramer, Sirish K. Reddy, Michael Cole, Charles Hoyle and Christopher N. Bowman

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20419

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      Thiol–ene photopolymerization kinetics without added photoinitiators were accurately predicted by modeling for a wide range of different vinyl chemistries. Initiation rates in polymerizations initiated with light centered around 365 nm were found to be proportional to the concentration of ene functional groups. When 254 nm light was used as the initiating light source, initiation rates were proportional to the concentration of thiol functional groups.

    27. Magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres prepared by dispersion polymerization in the presence of electrostatically stabilized ferrofluids (pages 5827–5837)

      Daniel Horák and Nataliya Benedyk

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20406

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      Fine magnetite nanoparticles, both electrostatically stabilized and nonstabilized, were synthesized in situ by precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts in alkaline medium. Magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres with core-shell structure, where Fe3O4 is the magnetic core and PGMA is the shell, were obtained by dispersion polymerization initiated with 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), 4,4′-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) (ACVA), or ammonium persulfate (APS) in ethanol containing poly(vinylpyrrolidone) or ethylcellulose stabilizer in the presence of iron oxide ferrofluid.

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      Atomic force microscopy observation of a helical poly(phenylacetylene) bearing aza-18-crown-6 ether pendants induced by amino acids (pages 5838–5844)

      Shin-ichiro Sakurai, Kenji Kuroyanagi, Ryuji Nonokawa and Eiji Yashima

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.20416

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      The structure and morphology of a stereoregular, cis–transoidal poly(phenylacetylene) bearing bulky aza-18-crown-6 ether pendants were investigated on a solid surface with atomic force microscopy. The isolated single strands and helically twisted conformations of this polymer with and without alanine could be directly observed on mica. The polymers complexed with L-alanine and D-alanine predominantly formed right- and left-handed helical conformations, respectively.

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