Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 44 Issue 14

15 July 2006

Volume 44, Issue 14

Pages 4251–4359

  1. Highlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Highlights
    3. Articles
    4. Rapid Communication
    5. Notes
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      Highly fluorinated compounds induce phase separation in, and nanostructuration of liquid media. Possible impact on, and use in chemical reactivity control (pages 4251–4258)

      Marie Pierre Krafft

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21508

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      Highly Fluorinated Compounds Induce Phase Separation in, and Nanostructuration of Liquid Media. Possible Impact on, and Use in Chemical Reactivity Control.

  2. Articles

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    2. Highlights
    3. Articles
    4. Rapid Communication
    5. Notes
    1. Solvent-free polymerization of citric acid and D-sorbitol (pages 4259–4267)

      Kenneth M. Doll, Randal L. Shogren, J. L. Willett and Graham Swift

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21535

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      Sorbitol and citric acid were polymerized in the absence of a solvent with a simple vacuum-oven method. Depending on the reactant ratios, the polyesters that formed were either water-soluble (molecular weight < 3000) or water-swellable (gelling) and had numerous pendant carboxylic acid groups. Such polycarboxylates are expected to be biodegradable and have utility as metal-ion sequestrants in detergents and other industrial applications.

    2. Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable A–B–A triblock copolymers containing poly(ϵ-caprolactone) A blocks and poly(trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline) B blocks (pages 4268–4280)

      Ren-Shen Lee, Zhe-Kuan Lin, Jen-Ming Yang and Feng-Huei Lin

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21524

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      Novel, biodegradable poly(ϵ-caprolactone)-block-poly(trans-4-hydroxy-N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-proline)-block-poly(ϵ-caprolactone) copolymers were synthesized and characterized with gel permeation chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Their micellar characteristics in an aqueous phase were investigated with fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. As the feed weight ratios of antitriptyline hydrochloride to the polymer increased, the drug loading increased. The micelles exhibited a spherical shape.

    3. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopic analysis of telechelic polythiourethanes obtained by the cationic ring-opening polymerization of six-membered cyclic thiourethane (pages 4281–4289)

      Daisuke Nagai, Masato Sato, Bungo Ochiai and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21531

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      A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy analysis of polythiourethanes obtained by the cationic ring-opening polymerization of a six-membered cyclic thiourethane (3-benzyltetrahydro-1,3-oxazine-2-thione) is described. The MALDI-TOF mass spectrum of a polymer obtained by polymerization with boron trifluoride etherate (BF3OEt2) as the initiator followed by an end-capping reaction with diethyldithiocarbamic acid diethylammonium salt showed a series of well-resolved signals that were assignable to a polythiourethane possessing an amino group at the initiating end and a diethyldithiocarbamate group at the terminating end. In comparison with the MALDI-TOF mass spectra of polymers obtained with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid or methyl trifluoromethanesulfonate, the plausible initiating species in the polymerization with BF3OEt2 was estimated to be a proton, which successively eliminated carbonyl sulfide to produce a secondary amine group at the initiating end.

    4. Block copolymers by chemoenzymatic cascade polymerization: A comparison of consecutive and simultaneous reactions (pages 4290–4297)

      Matthijs de Geus, Linda Schormans, Anja R. A. Palmans, Cor E. Koning and Andreas Heise

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21528

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      The synthetic parameters for the chemoenzymatic cascade synthesis of block copolymers combining enzymatic ring opening polymerization (eROP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) in one pot were investigated. It was found that the choice of ATRP catalyst system and monomer have a significant influence on the enzyme activity and block copolymer yield. Block copolymers were successfully synthesized in a cascade approach by activation of the ATRP after eROP by the addition of the ATRP catalyst and, with lower block copolymer yields, by mixing all the components prior to the copolymerization.

    5. Controlled radical polymerization by carboxyl- and hydroxyl-terminated dithiocarbamates and xanthates (pages 4298–4316)

      John T. Lai and Ronald Shea

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21532

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      N,N-Dialkyldithiocarbamates and O-alkylxanthates containing S-α, α -dialkyl-α-acetic acids and their 2-hydroxyethyl esters were synthesized. Telechelic carboxyl- and hydroxyl-terminated polymers were derived from them. Kinetic studies of the polymerizations in addition to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and 1H NMR spectra of the polymers were performed to confirm the reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) mediated processes. Block copolymers from the polymerization of the macromonomers, made by esterifications of carboxyl-terminated RAFT agents and hydroxyl-terminated polymers, were also prepared.

    6. Luminescent copolymers for applications in multicolor-light-emitting devices (pages 4317–4327)

      Christian Buchgraber, Alexander Pogantsch, Stefan Kappaun, Julia Spanring and Wolfgang Kern

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21539

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      A donor/acceptor copolymer has been prepared by the Suzuki coupling of a derivative of a luminescent dye[4-dicyanmethyl ene-2-methyl-6-4H-pyran (DCM); acceptor] with fluorene (donor). UV irradiation of this copolymer under a trimethylsilane atmosphere leads to a selective saturation of C[DOUBLE BOND]C bonds in the DCM units. As a result, the energy transfer in the copolymer is suppressed, and both photoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra undergo significant changes. Color-tunable organic light-emitting diodes based on this donor/acceptor copolymer are presented in this article.

    7. Microstructural characterization of terpolymers of leucine, β-benzyl aspartate, and valine (pages 4328–4337)

      Andrea Wamsley, Pasit Phiasivongsa, Bhaskara Jasti and Xiaoling Li

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21536

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      Three different characterization methods—13C NMR spectroscopy, a terminal terpolymerization model, and a probability analysis based on the Poisson distribution—were used to determine the microstructure of random terpolymers. The methods were used to determine the amino acid sequence distribution of random terpolymers prepared from the polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides that contained L-leucine, β-benzyl-L-aspartate, and L-valine. Poly(L-leucine-L-aspartic acid-L-valine) [poly(LDV)] was designed as a target specific substrate for the α4β1 integrin that recognizes the tripeptide sequence leucine-aspartic acid-valine (LDV). The presence of the tripeptide sequence LDV within the polymer was determined to be eight LDV triad sequences on average in terpolymers of approximately 100 kDa.

    8. Synthesis and characterization of a novel electroluminescent polymer based on a phenoxazine derivative (pages 4338–4345)

      Yuichi Ito, Takahiro Shimada, Jaekook Ha, Martin Vacha and Hisaya Sato

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21537

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      A novel electroluminescent polymer has been synthesized by the oxidative coupling copolymerization of two fluorescent monomers, N-(4-n-butylphenyl)phenoxazine and 9,9-di-n-butylfluorene. The reaction, optimized with respect to the reaction time, catalyst amount, temperature, and feed ratio of the comonomers, yields soluble polymers with a molecular weight as high as 9000 in a 75% yield. A polymer with a 50% comonomer incorporation ratio shows a luminance of 200 cd/m2 in a simple single-layer light-emitting-diode device of an indium tin oxide/polymer/Mg–Ag structure.

  3. Rapid Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Highlights
    3. Articles
    4. Rapid Communication
    5. Notes
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      Novel oligomers based on fluorene and 2,4-difluorobenzene: Correlation between the structures and optical properties (pages 4346–4353)

      Hong-Ji Jiang, Hong-Yu Wang, Jia-Chun Feng, Chuan-Ming Wang, Qu-Li Fan, Wei Wei and Wei Huang

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21530

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      A Y-shaped fluorene-based oligomer (3F) was designed and synthesized on the basis of parent oligomers (1F and 2F), and the optical relationship between the Y-shaped oligomer and its parent oligomers was investigated. The experimental and theoretical investigations demonstrated that the optical properties of the oligomers could be correlated with the molecular frameworks.

  4. Notes

    1. Top of page
    2. Highlights
    3. Articles
    4. Rapid Communication
    5. Notes
    1. You have free access to this content
      Microscopy study of powder-to-powder polycondensation of DL-1,3-bis(hydroxyphenylmethyl)benzene (pages 4354–4359)

      Takeshi Sasaki and Masato Suzuki

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21527

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      Microscopy studies using laser microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were performed on acid-catalyzed powder-to-powder polycondensation, in which white, powdery DL-1,3-bis(hydroxylphenylmethyl)benzene was directly transformed into white, powdery polyether without any macroscopic changes. Microscopically, powder particles that were composed of lots of monomer crystals were partially or completely fused through the polymerization. On some particle, there were traces that were originally from the monomer crystals, and this suggested that the fine monomer crystals partially fused and adhered to one another because of the heating for the polymerization. Temporary liquefaction proved to be involved in the powder-to-powder polymerization.

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