Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 44 Issue 2

15 January 2006

Volume 44, Issue 2

Pages 697–1048

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      Nitroxide decomposition: Implications toward nitroxide design for applications in living free-radical polymerization (pages 697–717)

      Aaron Nilsen and Rebecca Braslau

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21207

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      Nitroxides bearing an α-hydrogen decompose upon heating in a bimolecular reaction. A new mechanism is proposed for the decomposition of t-butylisopropylphenyl nitroxide (TIPNO) involving the formation of a head-to-tail dimer, single electron transfer to form an oxammonium salt, epimerization to the corresponding nitrone, and elimination to form a conjugated oxime. This mechanism may provide insights into designing new nitroxides for use in controlled polymerization.

  2. Articles

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    1. Syntheses of conductive adhesives based on epoxy resin and polyanilines by using N-tert-butyl-5-methylisoxazolium perchlorate as a thermally latent curing reagent (pages 718–726)

      Tetsuo Hino, Shunsuke Taniguchi and Noriyuki Kuramoto

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21085

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      The conductive adhesives based on ether resins and several polyanilines (PANIs) were synthesized, in which the curing reactions were carried out by using thermally latent curing reagent at 80 °C under various reaction conditions. As a result, it was found that the composite based on epoxy resin and PANI doped with dodecylsulfonic acid indicated the highest conductivity along with the lowest conducting percolation threshold.

    2. Synthesis and characterization of mid- and end-chain functional telechelics by controlled polymerization methods and coupling processes (pages 727–743)

      Demet Colak, Ioan Cianga, Ali Ekrem Muftuoglu and Yusuf Yagci

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21165

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      Polystyrene (PSt)- or poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-based polymers synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) or ring opening polymerization (ROP), possessing central or end 2,5-dibromo or 3,5-dibromobenzene moieties, were used in combination with amino- or aldehyde-functionalized boronic acids for Suzuki Coupling, yielding the corresponding desired telechelics. Further, functionalization was attained by condensation reaction of these polymers with appropriate low molecular weight aldehydes or amines to form azomethine linkages. As a result, mid- or end-chain pyrrolyl, naphthyl, or hydroxy functional telechelics were obtained. All the starting, intermediate, or final polymers were structurally analyzed by spectral methods.

    3. Copper-based supported catalysts for the atom transfer radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate: How can activity and control be tuned up? (pages 744–756)

      Emmanuel Duquesne, Céline Labruyère, Jean Habimana, Philippe Degée and Philippe Dubois

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21188

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      This contribution is aimed at revisiting the atom transfer radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate as initiated by ethyl-2-bromoisobutyrate with, as a supported catalytic system, copper bromide immobilized/ligated onto crosslinked polystyrene (PS) resins carrying pyridinimine groups (PS–pyridinimine/CuBr). The control of the polymerization reaction was proved to be strongly influenced by various experimental parameters, such as the nature of the support and its swollen ability, the temperature, the catalyst and monomer concentrations, and the ligand-to-catalyst molar ratio. The influence of a long and flexible polydimethylsiloxane spacer between the catalytic sites and the swollen support on the polymerization rate and control was investigated as well.

    4. Nonaqueous synthesis of nanosilica in epoxy resin matrix and thermal properties of their cured nanocomposites (pages 757–768)

      Tzong-Ming Lee and Chen-Chi M. Ma

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21167

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      Silicas with nanoscale dimension have been directly synthesized in diglycidyl ether bisphenol-A epoxy (DGEBA) resin in this study under the catalysis of boron trifluoride monoethylamine (BF3MEA). The effects of both the concentration of BF3MEA catalyst and amount of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) on the diameters of nanosilica during the nonaqueous synthetic process have been investigated. DGEBA epoxy resin was covalently bond to the surface of nanosilica through the condensation reaction of secondary hydroxy group with surface silanol on nanosilica. The Tg of the 4,4′-diaminodiphenysulfone (DDS)-cured epoxy nanosilica composites was 50 °C higher than that of pure DDS-cured epoxy network.

    5. Homopolymer and block copolymer brushes on gold by living anionic surface-initiated polymerization in a polar solvent (pages 769–782)

      Georgios Sakellariou, Mikyoung Park, Rigoberto Advincula, Jimmy W. Mays and Nikos Hadjichristidis

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21195

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      Living Anionic Surface Initiated Polymerization on flat gold substrates has been conducted in order to create uniform homopolymer (PEO, PS) and block copolymer brushes (PS-b-PEO, PI-b-PMMA). Spectroscopic (FTIR, surface plasmon spectroscopy, ellipsometry, XPS) and microscopic (AFM) surface analysis, as well as contact angle measurements was used to investigate the formation of the polymer brushes in polar solvent media. The effect of the experimental conditions (solvent, temperature, initiator concentration) on the surface properties of the polymer brushes was also investigated.

    6. Synthesis and characterization of light-emitting oligo(p-phenylene-vinylene)s and polymeric derivatives containing three- and five-conjugated phenylene rings (pages 783–800)

      Hong-Cheu Lin, Chien-Min Tsai, Guan-Hao Huang and Jyh-Ming Lin

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21173

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      Mesomorphism was introduced into the BV series by the replacement of three-conjugated rings (BIII series) with five-conjugated phenylene cores (BV series). The liquid-crystalline properties of the BV series with end groups (on both end rings) were better than those of analogous BV-OC8 without end groups. Different photoluminescence emission wavelengths and intensities were observed in solid, liquid-crystalline, and isotropic phases. Not only the solubility and thermal properties but also the photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties could be effectively adjusted by the attachment of flexible alkoxy groups either on the central rings or on both end rings of the conjugated cores.

    7. Simultaneous imaging of the structure and fluorescence of a supramolecular nanostructure formed by the coupling of π-conjugated polymer chains in the intermolecular interaction (pages 801–809)

      Ken-ichi Shinohara, Tasuku Suzuki, Takeshi Kitami and Shingo Yamaguchi

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21175

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      We fabricated a micrometer-long supramolecular chain in which π-conjugated polyrotaxane was coupled. A new experimental setup was designed and constructed, and the simultaneous direct imaging of the structure and fluorescent function was achieved. Furthermore, we identified the formation of a polymer intertwined network and observed novel fluorescence due to a long-range interaction via this intertwined network over a distance of 5 μm or more without quenching over 15 min in the near field.

    8. Synthesis and properties of optically active amino acid based polyacetylenes bearing eugenol and fluorene moieties (pages 810–819)

      Erwin Abdul Rahim, Fumio Sanda and Toshio Masuda

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21215

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      Novel optically active amino acid based polyacetylenes bearing eugenol and fluorene moieties (poly{N-[1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propyloxycarbonyl]-L-alanine N′-propargylamide{[poly(1)], poly{N-[1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propyloxycarbonyl]-L-alanine propargyl ester} [poly(2)], poly[N-(9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl)-L-alanine N′-propargylamide] [poly(3)], and poly[N-(9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl)-L-alanine propargyl ester] [poly(4)]) were synthesized by the polymerization of the corresponding N-propargylamides and esters with a rhodium-zwitterion catalyst in excellent yields, and their number-average molecular weights ranged from 10,800 to 17,300. The poly(N-propargylamide)s [poly(1) and poly(3)] exhibited large specific rotations and intense circular dichroism (CD) signals in CHCl3, which indicated that they took a helical structure with a predominantly one-handed screw sense. On the other hand, the poly(propargyl ester)s [poly(2) and poly(4)] exhibited only small specific rotations and CD signals.

    9. Interaction of silicic acid with poly(1-vinylimidazole) (pages 820–827)

      V. V. Annenkov, E. N. Danilovtseva, E. A. Filina and Y. V. Likhoshway

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21190

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      Poly(1-vinylimidazole) reacts with silicic acid and poly(silicic acid), giving rise to water-soluble complexes and insoluble composites because of hydrogen bonding. The composition, structure, and morphology of the obtained products have been studied with elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The main direction of the reaction depends not only on the initial ratio of the components, concentration, and pH but also on the sequence of the reagent mixing: the presence of poly(1-vinylimidazole) macromolecules during the formation of silicic acid stabilizes soluble complexes, which precipitate with an excess of H4SiO4 only. These soluble complexes may serve as a pattern of particles responsible for the transport of silicic acid in diatom algae and other organisms that assimilate silicon from the environment.

    10. Synthesis of low polydispersity polybutadiene and polyethylene stars by convergent living anionic polymerization (pages 828–836)

      Jack T. Bender and Daniel M. Knauss

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21178

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      Polybutadiene stars were synthesized by slowly and continuously adding 4-(chlorodimethylsilyl)styrene (CDMSS) to linear polybutadienyllithium chains. The polybutadiene stars were subsequently hydrogenated by either catalytic hydrogenation using Pd/CaCO3 or by decomposition of p-toluenesulfonhydrazide to convert the polybutadiene stars into polyethylene stars.

    11. Oxidation of poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene): Influence of the polymer chain structure (pages 837–845)

      Itaru Natori and Hisaya Sato

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21194

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      The influence of the microstructure on the oxidation of poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) (PCHD) homopolymer, obtained by anionic polymerization with alkyllithium/amine systems, was investigated for the first time. PCHD has a structure consisting of a main chain formed by 1,2-addition (the 1,2-CHD unit) and 1,4-addition (the 1,4-CHD unit). The molar ratio of 1,2-CHD/1,4-CHD units in the polymer chain strongly influenced the extent of oxidation of PCHD. A polymer chain with a high content of 1,4-CHD units was easily oxidized by air and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ). In contrast, the progress of oxidation was prevented in the case of PCHD containing 52% of 1,2-CHD units.

    12. Effect of the pore surface modification of an inorganic substrate on the plasma-grafting behavior of pore-filling-type organic/inorganic composite membranes (pages 846–856)

      Teruhiko Kai, Yasunori Suma, Shuichiro Ono, Takeo Yamaguchi and Shin-ichi Nakao

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21168

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      The effect of the surface treatment of a porous glass substrate on the plasma-grafting behavior of pore-filling-type organic/inorganic composite membranes was examined. The thickness of a grafted layer with a porous glass substrate was greater than that with a polyethylene substrate. This difference in the grafted layer thickness could be explained by the difference in the penetration depth of vacuum ultraviolet rays contained in plasma having a wavelength of less than 160 nm that generated radicals in the pores of the substrate. The thickness of a grafted layer with a silylated porous glass substrate was between the thicknesses of grafted layers with porous polyethylene and untreated porous glass.

    13. Reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer graft copolymerization of styrene and m-isopropenyl-α,α′-dimethylbenzyl isocyanate from polypropylene lanterns: Solid phases for scavenging applications (pages 857–864)

      Leonie Barner, Senake Perera, Sam Sandanayake and Thomas P. Davis

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21216

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      A series of scavenger lanterns were prepared via the γ-initiated reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer mediated free-radical graft copolymerization of styrene and m-isopropenyl-α,α′-dimethylbenzyl isocyanate (TMI) from a polypropylene solid phase. These TMI scavenger lanterns could successfully scavenge benzyl amine. A maximum loading capacity of 110 μmol per scavenger lantern was achieved with 50 mol % TMI at a grafting ratio of approximately 60 wt %.

    14. Multiscale approach to investigate the radiochemical degradation of epoxy resins under high-energy electron-beam irradiation (pages 865–887)

      N. Longiéras, M. Sebban, P. Palmas, A. Rivaton and J. L. Gardette

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21176

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      A multiscale investigation of the degradation mechanism of two epoxy systems exposed to electron-beam irradiation under a helium atmosphere was carried out with a variety of analytical methods. As a first step, we studied a linear phenoxy resin, poly(2-hydroxyether of bisphenol A), which provided a basis for the investigation of a more complex, insoluble epoxy–amine network, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A/triethylene tetramine. Among different structural modifications, a main-chain-scission process was identified for both polymers but with two different mechanisms. All methods, ranging from molecular to supramolecular scales, were shown to correlate both qualitatively and quantitatively.

    15. Sol–gel transition behavior of biodegradable three-arm and four-arm star-shaped PLGA–PEG block copolymer aqueous solution (pages 888–899)

      Su Jeong Lee, Bo Ryeong Han, Sang Yeob Park, Dong Keun Han and Sung Chul Kim

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21193

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      Two types of temperature-sensitive biodegradable three-arm and four-arm star-shaped poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid-b-ethylene glycol) (3-arm and 4-arm PLGA–PEG) were synthesized via the coupling reaction of 3-arm and 4-arm PLGA and ∝-monocarboxyl-ω-monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (CMPEG). In the concentrated aqueous solution, 3-arm and 4-arm PLGA–PEG showed sol–gel–sol transition behavior as the temperature was increased. Their gelation behavior occurred at higher polymer concentrations (ranging from 24 wt % to 34 wt %) than the PEG–PLGA–PEG triblock copolymer.

    16. Synthesis of poly(p-phenylene sulfide) from bis(4-bromophenyl) disulfide (pages 900–904)

      Ke Chen and Allan. S. Hay

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21191

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      When bis(4-bromophenyl)disulfide (BBD) is heated, only low molecular PPS is obtained, since the bromine atoms produced brominate the solvent and upset the stoichiometry. High molecular weight polymers, comparable to commercial PPS, have been obtained when BBD is heated for 10 min at 305 °C in benzophenone solvent in the presence of zinc powder and a catalytic amount of potassium iodide.

    17. Crosslinked epoxy materials exhibiting thermal remendablility and removability from multifunctional maleimide and furan compounds (pages 905–913)

      Ying-Ling Liu and Chia-Yun Hsieh

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21184

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      Crosslinked polymeric materials, which exhibit thermal remendability and removability through Diels–Alder (DA) and retro-DA reactions, were obtained from using multifunctional maleimide and furan compounds as monomers. The synthesized monomers possess low melting points and good solubility in organo solvents to show excellent processing properties. Self-repairing and removal characteristics observed with the crosslinked resins ensures their potential of using as advanced encapsulants and dielectric materials for modern microelectronics.

    18. Transition states for deactivation reactions in the modeled 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy-mediated free-radical polymerization of acrylonitrile (pages 914–927)

      Andrzej Kaim and Elżbieta Megiel

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21203

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      The structure is shown of the transition-state geometry in the radical combination reaction of 1-cyanopropyl and 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy radical with its highest occupied molecular orbital from a single-point UB3-LYP/6-31G(d) calculation using geometries optimized at the unrestricted Austin model 1 level of theory.

    19. Biofunctionalized block copolymer nanoparticles based on ring-opening metathesis polymerization (pages 928–939)

      Alvaro Carrillo, Mallinamadugu J. Yanjarappa, Kunal V. Gujraty and Ravi S. Kane

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21219

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      This article describes an approach to the synthesis of biofunctionalized block copolymer nanoparticles based on ring-opening metathesis polymerization. The nanoparticles are formed by the self-assembly of diblock copolymers composed of a hydrophobic block and a hydrophilic activated block that can be functionalized with thiolated ligands in aqueous media. The nanoparticle diameter can be varied over a wide range through changes in the composition of the block copolymer, and biofunctionalization of the nanoparticles has been demonstrated by the attachment of a peptide previously shown to inhibit the assembly of anthrax toxin.

    20. Synthesis and properties of organosoluble polynaphthalimides based on 1,4,5,8-naphthalene tetracarboxylic dianhydride, 3,3-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]phthalide, and various aromatic diamines (pages 940–948)

      Chin-Ping Yang, Yu-Yang Su and Je-Min Wang

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21213

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      Two series of polynaphthalimides (PNI), II and III, were prepared from 1,4,5,8-naphthalene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA) with usual aromatic diamines (Iah) or Ia, which was used as the soluble modifying agent, and Ibh via a one-stage process at high-temperature condensation. IIa and most of the III series were soluble in 1-methy-2-pyrrolidone and m-cresol at 5–10 wt%, and afford transparent and tough films by m-cresol solvent casting. Glass-transition temperature (Tg) of these PNIs were in the range of 360–404 °C, and the 10% weight-loss temperatures were above 495 °C, with more than a 44% char yield at 800 °C in nitrogen. These PNI films had dielectric constants of 4.14–6.46 (1 MHz) and moisture absorption of 0.87–1.91 wt%.

    21. Basic study of the gelation of dimethacrylate-type crosslinking agents (pages 949–958)

      Hiroshi Aoki, Ken Hosoya, Tomohisa Norisuye, Nobuo Tanaka, Daisuke Tokuda, Norio Ishizuka and Kazuki Nakanishi

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21205

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      An investigation was made of the gelation of dimethacrylate-type crosslinking agents in view of an application for separation media. The gelation was observed in real time with a charge coupled device camera and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Also, the separated dry gels were extensively characterized with scanning electron microscopy, BET, and Fourier transform infrared. DLS analysis showed a stronger molecular interaction of glycerol dimethacrylate (GDMA) gelation in toluene, whereas this interaction was much weaker in an alcoholic solvent such as toluene with methanol or cyclohexanol. This indicated that GDMA gelation might proceed through hydrogen bonding as well as a crosslinking reaction of vinyl groups.

    22. Polyimides from isomeric diphenylthioether dianhydrides (pages 959–967)

      Min Zhang, Zhen Wang, Lianxun Gao and Menxian Ding

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21204

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      Polyimides from isomeric diphenylthioether dianhydrides (TDPAs) with several diamines were prepared in N,N′-dimethylacetamide by the conventional two-step method. The glass-transition temperatures followed the decreasing order of the polyimides based on 3,3′-TDPA, 3,4′-TDPA, and 4,4′-TDPA. The 3,3′-TDPA and 3,4′-TDPA-based polyimides had good solubility in polar aprotic solvents and phenols. The thermoplastic polyimide resin 3,4′-TDPA/4,4-oxydianiline/phthalic anhydride showed better rheological properties and melt processibility than the other two isomers because of its unsymmetrical structure and exhibited outstanding rheological stability.

    23. Effects of the reaction parameters on the properties of thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microspheres prepared by precipitation and dispersion polymerization (pages 968–982)

      Hana Macková and Daniel Horák

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21223

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      Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based microspheres were prepared by precipitation and dispersion polymerization. The effects of several reaction parameters, such as the type and concentration of the crosslinker (N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide or ethylene dimethacrylate), medium polarity, concentration of the monomer and initiator, and polymerization temperature, on the properties were examined.

    24. Synthesis and characterization of ether derivatives of brominated poly(isobutylene-co-isoprene) (pages 983–992)

      Sergio A. Guillén-Castellanos, J. Scott Parent and Ralph A. Whitney

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21221

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      Variations of the Williamson ether synthesis and phase-transfer catalysis techniques were used to prepare allylic ether derivatives from brominated poly(isobutylene-co-isoprene) by nucleophilic substitution. Procedures for preparing aromatic and aliphatic ether derivatives are described, along with methods to generate graft copolymers with poly(ethylene oxide).

    25. Copolymerization of glycolide and trimethylene carbonate (pages 993–1013)

      Raül Zurita, Jordi Puiggalí, Lourdes Franco and Alfonso Rodríguez-Galán

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21199

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      The influence of the composition, temperature, reaction time, and catalyst on the chain microstructure of copolymers of glycolide with trimethylene carbonate was studied by means of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The results showed that transesterification reactions could take place during the polymerization, affecting the sequence distribution of the polymer chains. The thermal behavior and hydrolytic degradation rate of the copolymers were found to depend on the microstructure.

  3. Rapid Communications

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    1. Polyaniline nanofibers prepared with ultrasonic irradiation (pages 1014–1019)

      Xinli Jing, Yangyong Wang, Dan Wu, Lei She and Yan Guo

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21217

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      Ultrasonic irradiation was applied to the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers in a conventional oxidant dropwise addition fashion. The secondary growth of the initially formed PANI nanofibers into thick fibers with uneven surfaces and the agglomeration of the thick fibers into irregular particles that occurred in the case of magnetic stirring were successfully prevented in the presence of ultrasonic irradiation, and the nanofibers were preserved even hours after the secondary addition of aniline and ammonium peroxydisulfate to the reaction media. This makes the method one of the facile ways of synthesizing PANI nanofibers.

    2. Novel curing agent for lead-free electronics: Amino acid (pages 1020–1027)

      Yi Li, Fei Xiao, Kyoung-Sik Moon and C. P. Wong

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21239

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      A basic type of amino acid, lysine, was used as a novel ecofriendly curing agent of epoxy in electronic materials. Differential scanning calorimetry and in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterizations suggested a different reactivity and reaction mechanism for amino acid cured epoxy than for a typical amine or carboxylic acid cured epoxy. The primary amine in the lysine participated in the curing reaction first and was followed by the protonation of the secondary amine [BOND]NH on another epoxy group and the esterification of the carboxylic group in lysine with epoxide. The crosslinked epoxy with amino acid was thermally degradable and could be used as a reworkable resin as well.

    3. Synthesis and characterization of poly(pyridinium salt)s with organic counterions exhibiting both thermotropic liquid-crystalline and light-emitting properties (pages 1028–1041)

      Pradip K. Bhowmik, Haesook Han and Alexi K. Nedeltchev

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21181

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      Two poly(pyridinium salt)s, with tosylate and triflimide as counterions, were prepared by either the ring-transmutation polymerization of phenylated bis(pyrylium tosylate) salt with 1,9-diaminononane in DMSO or the metathesis reaction of the corresponding tosylate polymer with lithium triflimide in acetonitrile. They were characterized for both their thermotropic liquid-crystalline and light-emitting properties, with various experimental techniques.

    4. Vertically aligned polypyrrole drawing a fingerprint array prepared by electrochemical polymerization in chiral nematic electrolyte (pages 1042–1047)

      Hiromasa Goto and Kazuo Akagi

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21187

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      A new electrochemical polymerization method for preparing vertically aligned polypyrrole drawing a fingerprint array was developed. Polymerization of Py in the chiral nematic liquid crystal (N*-LC) produces vertical alignment of the fibril structure. Here, the N*-LC plays a role of a molecular vessel. The fibril can grow with forming vertically aligned fibril structure along the fingerprint texture of N*-LC by electrochemical polymerization process.

  4. Erratum

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