Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

15 March 2006

Volume 44, Issue 6

Pages 1785–2138

  1. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Articles
    3. Note
    1. Synthesis and characterization of novel biodegradable aliphatic poly(ester amide)s containing cyclohexane units (pages 1785–1795)

      Hélène A. Lecomte, John J. Liggat and Adam S. G. Curtis

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21288

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      A two-step melt/interfacial polycondensation reaction was used to produce a series of blockcopoly(ester amide)s. They show a range of thermal and mechanical properties depending on the size of the ester blocks and the amount of amide introduced, where both parameters could be controlled during synthesis. These materials were also shown to be hydrolyzable, noncytotoxic, and suitable for excellent cell attachment.

    2. Synthesis of A2B star block copolymers from a heterotrifunctional initiator (pages 1796–1806)

      O. Glaied, C. Delaite and P. Dumas

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21283

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      Well-defined (PCL)2-arm-PtBuMA (or PS) miktoarm star block copolymers were synthesized from a heteromultifunctional initiator bearing two OH (for the ROP of CL) and one Br (for the ATRP of tBuMA or styrene). This can be achieved in a sequential process through a PCL or PtBuMA (PS) macroinitiator or in a simultaneous way, i.e. directly from the two monomers and initiator mixture as described in the scheme.

    3. Synthesis and characterization of glycidyl methacrylate/butyl acrylate copolymers obtained at a low temperature by atom transfer radical polymerization (pages 1807–1816)

      José Luis de la Fuente, Pedro Francisco Cañamero and Marta Fernández-García

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21294

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      The atom transfer radical copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate was performed with three different feed monomer compositions at a low temperature in toluene and diphenyl ether solutions. The ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate/copper chloride/N,N,N′,N″,N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine system showed good controllability for both polymerizations and yielded polymers with relatively low polydispersity indices. The variation of the copolymer composition with the conversion was adequately described by the estimated monomer reactivity ratios and the Mayo–Lewis terminal model.

    4. Fluorinated and ring-substituted bisbenzimidazole copper complexes for ethylene/acrylate copolymerization (pages 1817–1840)

      Lisa Saunders Baugh, Joseph A. Sissano, Smita Kacker, Enock Berluche, Robert T. Stibrany, Donald N. Schulz and Steven P. Rucker

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21269

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      Bisbenzimidazole copper dichloride complexes featuring ligands with various steric, electronic, and geometric characteristics were prepared. The complexes were used to catalyze the random copolymerization of ethylene with acrylates or methacrylates. The effects of both the bisbenzimidazole ligand structure and (meth)acrylate comonomer structure on the copolymerization process are discussed.

    5. Block copolymer mediated synthesis of amphiphilic gold nanoparticles in water and an aqueous tetrahydrofuran medium: An approach for the preparation of polymer–gold nanocomposites (pages 1841–1854)

      Suresh K. Jewrajka and Uma Chatterjee

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21293

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      Amphiphilic block copolymer coated gold nanoparticles were well dispersed in several hydrophobic and hydrophilic homopolymer matrices. Thus, poly[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate]-b-poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] and polystyrene-b poly[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] stabilized gold particles were well dispersed in poly(methyl methacrylate) and polystyrene homopolymer matrices, respectively. The wavelengths at the maximum absorption of the gold colloids in solution (without a polymer matrix) and the corresponding nanocomposite films were the same. Transmission electron microscopy images of sectioned sections of the polymer nanocomposite films showed similar shapes and sizes of the gold nanoparticles in the matrices and solutions (without a polymer matrix), suggesting good dispersibility of the gold colloids in the polymer matrices.

    6. Grafting of commercially available amines bearing aromatic rings onto poly(vinylidene-co-hexafluoropropene) copolymers (pages 1855–1868)

      A. Taguet, B. Ameduri and B. Boutevin

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21295

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      The grafting of a series of three different amines containing aromatic rings was investigated via a three-step mechanism. The grafting rate was assessed from 1H NMR and the evolution of grafting versus time was studied.

    7. Novel approach to preparing epoxy/polyhedral oligometric silsesquioxane hybrid materials possessing high mass fractions of polyhedral oligometric silsesquioxane and good homogeneity (pages 1869–1876)

      Ying-Ling Liu and Gung-Pei Chang

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21300

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      Epoxy/polyhedral oligometric silsesquioxane (POSS) hybrid materials, which possessed POSS contents greater than 50 wt % and exhibited good homogeneity, were obtained in a two-step preparation. Monoamine-functionalized POSS was first reacted with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A to form an epoxy POSS precursor, which was then cured. Curing agents such as 4,4′-diaminodiphenylmethane, dicyandiamide (DICY), and diethylphosphite (DEP) resulted in epoxy–POSS hybrid materials. The use of small-molecule curing agents, such as DICY and DEP, efficiently avoided macrophase separations and enhanced the thermal properties of the hybrid materials.

    8. Vinyl-terminated side-chain liquid-crystalline polyethers containing mesogenic benzylideneaniline moieties (pages 1877–1889)

      Lourdes Callau, Marta Giamberini, José Antonio Reina and Ana Mantecón

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21289

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      Two vinyl-terminated side-chain liquid-crystalline polyethers containing benzylideneaniline moieties as mesogenic cores were synthesized by polymerization of glycidyl ether derivatives. Among the several polymerization initiators we tested, the system that combined polyiminophosphazene base t-Bu-P4 and 3,5-di-t-butylphenol was the only one which led to the desired polymers. Both polymers behave like liquid crystals and showed a smectic C mesophase. Polymers were crosslinked by using dicumyl peroxide as an initiator, which led to liquid crystalline thermosets.

    9. Cocuring behaviors of benzoxazine and maleimide derivatives and the thermal properties of the cured products (pages 1890–1899)

      Ying-Ling Liu and Juin-Meng Yu

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21290

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      The cocuring behaviors of 3-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazine (P-ABz) and various N-phenylmaleimide compounds were studied with DSC, FTIR, and TGA-GC/MS. The presence of benzoxazine compound promoted the polymerization of maleimide groups. In contrast, 4-hydroxyphenylmaleimide (MI-OH) and 4-maleimidobenzoic acid (MI-COOH), which possess acidic moieties, showed an acid-catalytic effect on the polymerization of benzoxazine groups. The cocuring composition of P-ABz/MI-COOH showed low polymerization temperatures, high glass transition temperature above 220 °C, and comparable thermal stability to conventional polybenzoxazines.

    10. Atom transfer graft copolymerization of 2-ethyl hexylacrylate from labile chlorines of poly(vinyl chloride) in an aqueous suspension (pages 1900–1907)

      Niyazi Bicak, Bunyamin Karagoz and Dilek Emre

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21298

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      Copper-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization is applicable for the graft copolymerization of 2-ethyl hexylacrylate from labile chlorines of poly(vinyl chloride) in aqueous suspensions with α-methylcellulose as a stabilizer. Although the kinetics of the reaction deviates from the first order at high conversions, reasonable graft yields (146%) can be attained within 24 h at 90 °C without the use of additional solvent.

    11. Copolymerization of ethylene with styrene catalyzed by a linked bis(phenolato) titanium catalyst (pages 1908–1913)

      Carmine Capacchione, Antonio Proto, Henner Ebeling, Rolf Mülhaupt and Jun Okuda

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21292

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      Copolymerization of ethylene with styrene, catalyzed by 1,4-dithabutanediyl-linked bis(phenolato) titanium complex and methylaluminoxane, produced exclusively ethylene–styrene copolymers with high activity. The copolymer microstructure can be varied by changing the ratio between the monomers in the copolymerization feed, affording copolymers with styrene content up to 68%. The copolymer microstructure was fully elucidated by 13C NMR spectroscopy revealing, in the copolymers with styrene content higher than 50%, the presence of long styrene–styrene homosequences, occasionally interrupted by isolated ethylene units.

    12. Emulsion atom transfer radical block copolymerization of 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate (pages 1914–1925)

      Hormoz Eslami and Shiping Zhu

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21297

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      The emulsion atom transfer radical copolymerization of 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate (EHMA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) was initiated by 1,4-butylene glycol di(2-bromoisobutyrate), mediated by copper bromide/4,4′-dinonyl-2,2′-bipyridyl, and stabilized by polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate. Triblock poly(methyl methacrylate–2-ethylhexyl methacrylate–methyl methacrylate) samples with various block lengths were synthesized. The latex products were stable. The copolymerization proceeded in a living manner and gave good control over the polymer molecular weights, as shown in the figure (from right to left, the EHMA homopolymer and its MMA copolymers at different times).

    13. Novel acyclic nitroxides for nitroxide-mediated polymerization: Kinetic, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction, and molecular modeling investigations (pages 1926–1940)

      Olivier Lagrille, Neil R. Cameron, Peter A. Lovell, Robert Blanchard, Andrés E. Goeta and Rainer Koch

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21301

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      New hydrophobic acyclic nitroxides intended to be employed in radical miniemulsion polymerization have been prepared, and certain important parameters of the corresponding alkoxyamines, such as the dissociation rate constant, combination rate constant, and decomposition rate constant, have been determined. All nitroxides give good control of the bulk radical polymerization of styrene. The molecular structures of some nitroxides have been elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which aids our understanding of the influence of the nitroxide structure on the activation energy for alkoxyamine dissociation. Molecular modeling indicates a good linear correlation between the activation energy and the CNC bond angle for a series of nitroxides with the same type of leaving radical.

    14. Solubilizing single-walled carbon nanotubes with pyrene-functionalized block copolymers (pages 1941–1951)

      Greg J. Bahun, Clair Wang and Alex Adronov

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21308

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      A series of pyrene-functionalized block copolymers were synthesized and used to determine the effect of pyrene distribution on the polymer interaction with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The pyrene-containing block copolymers interacted with SWNTs and helped to solubilize them more effectively than random copolymers in which pyrene groups were distributed throughout the entire polymer. Also, as the pyrene concentration within the pyrene-containing block increased, so did the binding strength to the SWNTs. Additionally, short pyrene-containing blocks were more effective for the dissolution of SWNTs than long pyrene-containing blocks.

    15. Graft polymerization of vinyl monomers inside macroporous polyacrylamide gel, cryogel, in aqueous and aqueous-organic media initiated by diperiodatocuprate(III) complexes (pages 1952–1963)

      Irina N. Savina, Bo Mattiasson and Igor Yu. Galaev

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21305

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      The diperiodatocuprate(III) complexes initiate the radical graft polymerization of vinyl monomers inside macroporous polyacrylamide gel, cryogel, by forming an amidyl radical on the polyacrylamide backbone. The deposition of the initiator on the pore surface of the cryogels facilitated the graft polymerization by improving the formation of redox couple Cu(III)-acrylamide group. The graft polymerization of META, HEMA, DMAA, and NIPA proceeded with higher grafting degrees in the aqueous medium compared with the graft polymerization in the water–DMSO medium. The graft polymerization of water-insoluble monomers as GMA and BA with high grafting degrees was possible in water–DMSO medium.

    16. Preparation of linear α-olefins to high-molecular weight polyethylenes using cationic α-diimine nickel(II) complexes containing chloro-substituted ligands (pages 1964–1974)

      Chun-Lei Song, Li-Ming Tang, Yan-Guo Li, Xiao-Fang li, Jie Chen and Yue-Sheng Li

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21303

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      A series of α-diimine nickel(II) complexes bearing chloro-substituted ligands, [(Ar)N[DOUBLE BOND]C(C10H6)C[DOUBLE BOND]N(Ar)]NiBr2, have been synthesized and characterized, and shown to be highly active toward oligomerization and polymerization of ethylene.

    17. Atom transfer radical copolymerization of acrylonitrile and ethyl methacrylate at ambient temperature (pages 1975–1984)

      A. S. Brar and Tripta Saini

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21302

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      Copolymerization of acrylonitrile and ethyl methacrylate using copper-based atom transfer radical polymerization at ambient temperature (30 °C) has been investigated with the aim of achieving control over molecular weight distribution. The effect of variation of concentration of initiator, ligand, catalyst and temperature on the molecular weight distribution and kinetics were investigated. Successful polymerizations were achieved with 2-bromopropionitrile as initiator, even with low catalyst concentrations, without loss of control over polymerization. The variation of copolymer composition with conversion indicated towards the synthesis of copolymers having slight changes in composition with conversion. The high chain-end functionality of the synthesized copolymers was verified by further chain extension with methyl acrylate and styrene.

    18. Synthesis and characterization of block copolymers by metal- and solvent-free ring-opening polymerization of cyclic carbonates initiated from PEG-based surfactants (pages 1985–1996)

      Hisatoyo Morinaga, Bungo Ochiai, Hideharu Mori and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21306

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      Ring-opening polymerizations of trimethylene carbonate (TC) and 2,2-dimethyltrimethylene carbonate (DTC) were initiated from hydroxyl-terminated surfactants (Triton X-100 or Triton X-405) without any catalyst.

    19. Preparation and properties of molecular-weight-controlled polyimides derived from 1,4-bis(4′-amino-2′-trifluoromethylphenoxy)benzene and 4,4′-oxydiphthalic anhydride (pages 1997–2006)

      K. Wang, S. Y. Yang, L. Fan, M. Sh. Zhan and J. G. Liu

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21309

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      A series of molecular-weight-controlled fluorinated aromatic polyimides were synthesized through the polycondensation of a fluorinated aromatic diamine, 1,4-bis(4′-amino-2′-trifluoromethylphenoxy)benzene, with 4,4′-oxydiphthalic anhydride in the presence of phthalic anhydride as the molecular-weight-controlling and end-capping agent. The resulting polyimides exhibited both good solubility and melt processability and could be solution-cast or melt-molded to produce polyimide films with excellent mechanical properties with a flexural strength of 127.8 MPa, a tensile strength of 105.9 MPa, and an elongation at break as high as 31.6%.

    20. Oxygen inhibition in thiol–acrylate photopolymerizations (pages 2007–2014)

      Allison K. O'Brien, Neil B. Cramer and Christopher N. Bowman

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21304

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      The overall effects of oxygen on thiol–acrylate photopolymerizations were characterized. In general, as thiol concentration was increased, the degree of oxygen inhibition was greatly reduced because of chain transfer from the peroxy radical to the thiol. It was found that the propionate thiol–acrylate system (glycol dimercaptopropionate) was much more reactive and polymerized to a greater extent in the presence of oxygen than the alkane thiol–acrylate (1,6-hexane dithiol). In addition, given the same thiol concentration, a higher functionality thiol (pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate)) imparted a faster polymerization rate, due to the increased system viscosity, which decreases oxygen diffusion and the extent of overall oxygen inhibition.

    21. Titanium-mediated living radical styrene polymerizations. V. Cp2TiCl-catalyzed initiation by epoxide radical ring opening: Effect of solvents and additives (pages 2015–2026)

      Alexandru D. Asandei, Isaac W. Moran, Gobinda Saha and Yanhui Chen

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21307

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      The effects of solvents, additives, ligands, and in situ drying agents as well as catalyst and initiator concentrations have been investigated in the Cp2TiCl-catalyzed radical polymerization of styrene initiated by epoxide radical ring opening. The solvents rank as follows: dioxane ≥ tetrahydrofuran > diethylene glycol dimethyl ether > anisole > diphenyl ether ≥ bulk > toluene ≫ pyridine > dimethylformamide > 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone > dimethylacetamide > ethylene carbonate, acetonitrile, and trioxane. Aluminum triisopropoxide and titanium(IV) isopropoxide additives lead to broad polydispersity, bipyridyl inactivates the catalyst, and triphenylphosphine improves toluene polymerizations. Lithium tri-tert-butoxyaluminum hydride, sodium borohydride, and lithium aluminum hydride form polymerization-inactive titanium hydrides, but lithium hydride, sodium hydride, and especially calcium hydride are effective as in situ trace water scavengers.

    22. Polymerization of bisdithiafulvenes with conjugated spacers using oxidative dimerization (pages 2027–2033)

      Kensuke Naka, Shinsuke Inagi, Yuki Murachi and Yoshiki Chujo

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21315

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      Redox active polymers containing vinylogous tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) units were prepared by the oxidative dimerization polymerization of bisdithiafulvenes. The introduction of phenylene or phenylene vinylene spacers between the dialkoxybenzene and vinylogous TTF effectively prevented the distortion of the polymer main chain.

    23. Synthesis, characterization, effect of architecture on crystallization, and spherulitic growth of poly(L-lactide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers with different branch arms (pages 2034–2044)

      Chen Cai, Lu Wang and Chang-Ming Dong

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21318

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      Well-defined poly(L-lactide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PLLA-b-PEO) block copolymers with different branch arms were successfully synthesized via a two-step synthetic strategy. The maximal melting point, cold-crystallization temperature, and degree of crystallinity (Xc) of the poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) block within these PLLA-b-PEO copolymers decreased as the branch arm number increased, whereas Xc of the poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) block within the copolymers inversely increased. Moreover, both the PLLA and PEO blocks within the block copolymers mutually influenced each other, and the crystallization of both the PLLA and PEO blocks within the PLLA-b-PEO copolymers could be adjusted through both the branch arm number and the arm length of each block. Furthermore, the spherulitic growth rate decreased as the branch arm number increased, whereas the induction time inversely increased.

    24. Chemical preparation and characterization of new biodegradable aliphatic polyesters end-capped with diverse steroidal moieties (pages 2045–2058)

      Jing Yang, Qiaobo Li, Yang Li, Lin Jia, Qiang Fang and Amin Cao

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21317

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      In this work, three kinds of novel aluminum metal complexes bearing a bulky Salen ligand and diverse steroidal alkoxy moieties were successfully prepared through a facile synthetic strategy. Subsequently, the molecular structures of these new metal complexes were characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and Fourier infrared spectrometry. These metal complexes were continuously applied as candidate catalysts for ring-opening polymerization to prepare new steroidal-moiety-end-capped biodegradable aliphatic polyesters [poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly(δ-valerolactone)] with favorable narrow molecular weight distributions. In addition, the physical properties of these new polymers were studied.

    25. Aromatic oxadiazole-based conjugated polymers with excited-state intramolecular proton transfer: Their synthesis and sensing ability for explosive nitroaromatic compounds (pages 2059–2068)

      Tae Hoon Kim, Hyung Jun Kim, Chan Gyu Kwak, Won Ho Park and Taek Seung Lee

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21319

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      We are presenting polymers as fluorescent sensors for nitroaromatic compounds that use intramolecular hydrogen bonding as a sensing module. A polymer solution showed quenching upon the addition of nitroaromatic compounds, demonstrating that the effect was clearly manifested upon exposure to picric acid.

    26. Synthesis of comb-like polystyrene with poly(N-phenyl maleimide-alt-p-chloromethyl styrene) as macroinitiator (pages 2069–2075)

      Yan Shi, Zhifeng Fu and Wantai Yang

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21311

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      Comb-like polystyrenes with one graft chain every two monomer units of backbone polymer were synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization with alternating copolymers as macroinitiators, which were obtained by copolymerization of N-phenyl maleimide and p-chloromethyl styrene via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization with AIBN as initiator and 2-(ethoxycarbonyl)prop-2-yl dithiobenzoate as RAFT agent.

    27. Synthesis of styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymers by atom transfer radical polymerization: 2D NMR investigations (pages 2076–2085)

      A. S. Brar and Puneeta

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21291

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      A complete spectral assignment has been done for S/M copolymers with the correlation of 1D (1H, 13C{1H}, DEPT-135) and 2D (HSQC, HMBC) NMR spectroscopy. α-Methyl and carbonyl carbon have been found to be compositionally and configurationally sensitive and have been completely assigned with the help of 13C{1H}, HSQC, and HMBC.

    28. Iron-catalyzed radical polymerization of acrylamides in the presence of Lewis acid for simultaneous control of molecular weight and tacticity (pages 2086–2098)

      Yuya Sugiyama, Kotaro Satoh, Masami Kamigaito and Yoshio Okamoto

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21310

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      Stereospecific living radical polymerization of N,N-dimethylacrylamide and N-isopropylacrylamide was attained by a combination of an iron complex ([FeCp(CO)2]2) and a Lewis acid [Y(OTf)3], wherein the former reversibly generates the growing radical species from the C[BOND]I terminal and the latter induces the stereospecific chain growth via coordination with the amide group of the polymer terminal and the monomer. The obtained polymer thus had controlled molecular weights and high isotacticity (m > 80%). A series of Lewis acids were also used for the iron(I)-catalyzed DMAM polymerization, and Yb(OTf)3 and Yb(NTf2)3 proved effective in giving isotactic polymers without deteriorating the molecular weight control similar to Y(OTf)3. Stereoblock polymerization of DMAM via a one-pot reaction was also achieved by just adding the Y(OTf)3 methanol solution in the course of the polymerization to give atactic-b-isotactic poly(DMAM).

    29. Effect of reaction conditions on the molecular weight and polydispersity of linear poly(arylene ether phosphine oxide)s prepared from an AB monomer (pages 2099–2106)

      Sridevi Kaiti and Eric Fossum

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21313

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      A thorough study of the polymerization behavior of 4-fluoro-4′-hydroxytriphenyl-phosphine oxide (2) under nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions has been carried out. Polymerization reactions of 2 in NMP or DMSO at 180 °C provided the corresponding linear poly(arylene ether phosphine oxide)s, (PAEPOs), with number average molecular weights (Mn) ranging from 11,700 to 36,500 Da.

    30. Acrylic polymer/silica hybrid for electron-beam resists (pages 2107–2116)

      Toshiyuki Tamai, Yukihito Matsuura, Mitsuru Watanabe and Kimihiro Matsukawa

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21320

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      An acrylic polymer/silica hybrid resist film was investigated for fabricating a microstructure by electron-beam (EB) lithography. The hybrid was an analog resist and could fabricate a three-dimensional microstructure. The resist film had high heat resistance and compatibility with the underlying quartz plate, probably because of the silica component. The acrylic polymer component was EB-sensitive, whereas dispersing the acrylic polymer and silica components homogeneously also played an important role in increasing the EB sensitivity.

    31. Synthesis and chiroptical properties of L-valine-containing poly(phenylacetylene)s with (a)chiral pendant terminal groups (pages 2117–2129)

      Lo Ming Lai, Jacky W. Y. Lam and Ben Zhong Tang

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21312

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      Phenylacetylenes containing L-valine residues with (a)chiral pendant terminal groups are designed and synthesized. Polymerizations of the monomers are effected by organorhodium catalysts, producing soluble, thermally stable, helical polymers with high molecular weights in high yields. The backbone conjugation and chain helicity of the polymers can be modulated continuously and reversibly by acid.

  2. Note

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    2. Articles
    3. Note
    1. You have free access to this content
      Preparation of poly(fluorene)s using trans-bis(dicyclohexylamine)palladium diacetate as a catalyst: Scope and limitations (pages 2130–2138)

      Stefan Kappaun, Mischa Zelzer, Karin Bartl, Robert Saf, Franz Stelzer and Christian Slugovc

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.21327

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      trans-Bis(dicyclohexylamine)palladium diacetate was tested in a Suzuki-type poly(fluorene) synthesis. Poly(9,9-dihexylfluorene) was prepared in only 2 h with alcohols as the solvent and KOH as the base. The concomitant occurrence of Suzuki coupling, debromination, hydrolytic deboronation, and hydroxy deboronation reactions was demonstrated and used in a such way that either dihydrogen-terminated or partly hydroxy-terminated poly(fluorene)s could be obtained.