Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 45 Issue 24

15 December 2007

Volume 45, Issue 24

Pages 5705–5990

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      Science and technology of perfluorocyclobutyl aryl ether polymers (pages 5705–5721)

      Scott T. Iacono, Stephen M. Budy, Jianyong Jin and Dennis W. Smith, Jr.

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22390

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      The preparation of perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) aryl ether polymers for a multitude of commercial technologies are of academic and commercial global interest. In this account, the synthesis of various aryl trifluorovinyl ether (TFVE) monomers from commercial sources can be tailored for specific applications. The preparation of PFCB aryl ether polymers and their properties is then presented. Topics of PFCB aryl ether polymers and their applications include photonics, polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs), proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for fuel cells, atomic oxygen (AO) resistant coatings, and hybrid composites.

      Corrected by:

      Erratum: Science and technology of perfluorocyclobutyl aryl ether polymers

      Vol. 47, Issue 13, 3454, Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2009

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    1. “Living”/controlled free radical polymerization of MMA in the presence of cobalt(II) 2-ethylhexanoate: A switch from RAFT to ATRP mechanism (pages 5722–5730)

      Zhengbiao Zhang, Wei Zhang, Xiulin Zhu, Zhenping Cheng and Jian Zhu

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22320

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      A metal complex, cobalt(II) 2-ethylhexanoate (CEH), was added to the system of thermal-initiated RAFT polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) with 2-cyanoprop-2-yl 1-dithionaphthalate (CPDN) as the RAFT agent at 115 °C. The polymerization rate was remarkably enhanced in the presence of CEH in comparison with that in the absence of CEH. No loss of the “living”/controlled features was observed when CEH was added. A transition of the polymerization mechanism, from RAFT process without CEH addition to ATRP in the presence of CEH, was possibly responsible for polymerization profiles.

    2. Copolymerization of propylene with 1,3-butadiene using isospecific zirconocene catalysts (pages 5731–5740)

      Takeshi Ishihara, Hoang The Ban, Hideaki Hagihara and Takeshi Shiono

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22321

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      Copolymerization of propylene and butadiene with isospecific zirconocene catalysts and the metathesis degradation of the copolymers containing 1,4-inserted butadiene units to vinyl-telechelic isotactic polypropylene.

    3. Synthesis of core-shell silver–polyaniline nanocomposites by gamma radiolysis method (pages 5741–5747)

      Mohammad Rezaul Karim, Kwon Taek Lim, Chul Jae Lee, Md Tauhidul Islam Bhuiyan, Hee Jin Kim, Lee-Soon Park and Mu Sang Lee

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22323

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      Inside metal (core) and outside polyaniline (shell) nanocomposites have been synthesized by the in-situ gamma radiation-induced chemical polymerization method. The resultant nanocomposites indicated that no chemical interaction occurred between the metal and polymer, only the metallic silver was encapsulated in the cores of the growing polymer chains, resulting in the formation of core-shell silver–polyaniline (Ag-PAni) hybrid materials. Finally, the Ag-PAni nanocomposites showed improved optical, thermal, and electrical properties compared with the bulk PAni homopolymer.

    4. Synthesis of poly(4-vinylpyridine) by reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (pages 5748–5758)

      Gregory T. Lewis, Van Nguyen and Yoram Cohen

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22324

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      Reverse ATRP of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) was achieved in a 50 vol % I-methyl-2-pyrrolidone/water mixture using a 2,2′-azobis(2,4-dimethylpentanitrile) initiator and CuCI2/2,2′-bipyridine catalyst–ligand complex, for a monomer concentration of [M]0 = 2.32–3.28 M and temperature range of 70–80°C. Controlled radical polymerization was achieved at catalyst to initiator molar ratios in the range of 1.3:1 to 1.6:1. The highest number–average degree of polymerization of 247 (number–average molecular weight = 26,000 g/mol) was achieved at a temperature of 70°C. [M]0= 3.24 M and a catalyst to initiator molar ratio of 1.6:1.

    5. Synthesis of PS and PDMAEMA mixed polymer brushes on the surface of layered silicate and their application in pickering suspension polymerization (pages 5759–5769)

      Yongfang Yang, Jian Zhang, Li Liu, Chenxi Li and Hanying Zhao

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22325

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      Polystyrene and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) mixed polymer brushes on the surface of clay layers were prepared by in situ free radical polymerization. The clay layers with mixed homopolymer brushes can be used as stabilizer in suspension polymerization of styrene. PS colloid particles armored by clay layers with mixed polymer brushes were prepared by Pickering suspension polymerization.

    6. Fluorinated bio-acceptable polymers via an ATRP macroinitiator approach (pages 5770–5780)

      Natanya M. L. Hansen, David M. Haddleton and Søren Hvilsted

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22326

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      Polymers derived from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA), and poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PPEGMA) have been prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) utilizing an initiator prepared from a fluoroalkoxy-terminated oligoethylene glycol. A significant increase in the advancing water contact angles of all fluoro-containing polymers is found compared to the nonfluorinated analogues. The influence of the fluorinated macroinitiator on the contact angle of water on the surface of PPEGMA is seen below. Nonfluorinated PPEGMA (left) exhibited advancing contact angles of ∼42°, while the introduction of the fluorinated moiety increased the advancing contact angles to around 67° (right).

    7. Synthesis and properties of polymethacrylate bearing cyclic carbonate through urethane linkage (pages 5781–5789)

      Bungo Ochiai, Yuuko Ootani, Tetsushi Maruyama and Takeshi Endo

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22327

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      Polymethacrylates carrying cyclic carbonate through urethane linkage were prepared by radical (co)polymerizations of 2-methacrylic acid 2-(2-oxo-[1,3rsqb;dioxolan-4-ylmethoxycarbonylamino)ethyl ester (CUMA). Although brittleness of typical polymers bearing cyclic carbonate groups has been limited their practical applications, some copolymers from CUMA can be cast as films with good flexibility. The copolymers from CUMA and diethyleneglycol methyl ether methacrylate are miscible with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone)imide. The coordination of the lithium cation to the carbonyl groups was confirmed by infrared spectrometry.

    8. Novel double hydrophilic block copolymers based on poly(p-hydroxystyrene) derivatives and poly(ethylene oxide) (pages 5790–5799)

      Grigoris Mountrichas and Stergios Pispas

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22329

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      Novel double hydrophilic block copolymers based on poly(p-hydroxy styrene) derivatives and poly(ethylene oxide) were prepared by a combination of anionic polymerization and post polymerization functionalization. The copolymers show pH depending self-assembly in solution.

    9. Nanopore microspheres prepared by a cationic surfmer in the miniemulsion polymerization of styrene (pages 5800–5810)

      Nana Cao, Xinbo Wang, Lingyong Song and Zhi Cheng Zhang

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22330

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      Nanopore microspheres were prepared by phase separation between hexadecane and the formed copolymer of styrene and a polymerizable cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant (CQAS) through miniemulsion polymerization. It should be emphasized that the chemically bounded surfmer shows a much more stable effect to stabilize the latexes than the physically absorbed counterpart (CTAB). [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    10. Thermolyzable polymer networks and star polymers containing a novel, compact, degradable acylal-based dimethacrylate cross-linker: Synthesis, characterization, and thermolysis (pages 5811–5823)

      Efrosyni Themistou, Amelia Kanari and Costas S. Patrickios

      Version of Record online: 1 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22331

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      Thermolyzable star polymers (picture on the right) and polymer networks were prepared by the group transfer polymerization of methyl methacrylate (blue) and a cleavable acylal dimethacrylate cross-linker (red). These materials were successfully thermolyzed by heating at 200 °C in a vacuum oven for 1 day. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    11. Preparation of the amphiphilic macro-rings of poly(ethylene oxide) with multi-polystyrene lateral chains and their extraction for dyes (pages 5824–5837)

      Xinchang Pang, Guowei Wang, Zhongfan Jia, Chao Liu and Junlian Huang

      Version of Record online: 1 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22333

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      A novel method to synthesize the macrocyclic graft copolymers with multi-polystyrene lateral chains is described. The copolymers consist of a hydrophilic PEO ring and hydrophobic PS lateral chains and were synthesized via a combination of anionic ring-opening polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization. The experimental results of the extraction for dyes confirmed that the c-PEO-g-PS shows stronger conjugation ability with the dyes than comb-PEO-g-PS. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    12. Mechanisms of n-butanol formation in butyl acrylate latexes (pages 5838–5846)

      Monika Goikoetxea, María J. Barandiaran and José M. Asua

      Version of Record online: 1 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22334

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      The mechanisms involved in the formation of n-butanol during the synthesis of butyl acrylate containing latexes were investigated. The figure shows that n-butanol formed during storage irrespective of the pH, and even though there was no free butyl acrylate. In addition, the production rate was higher when the amount of unreacted initiator was higher (thermal initiator). These results suggest that the production of n-butanol is not associated with the free monomer, so the n-butanol is mainly formed from the polymer backbone.

    13. Synthesis and characterization of arborescent (hyperbranched) polyisobutylenes from the 4-(1,2-oxirane-isopropyl)styrene inimer (pages 5847–5856)

      Elizabeth A. Foreman, Judit E. Puskas and Gabor Kaszas

      Version of Record online: 1 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22335

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      The polymerization of arborescent polyisobutylene (arbPIB) from the 4-(1,2-oxirane-isopropyl)-styrene inimer (EPOIM) was accomplished yielding high molecular weight arbPIB. These polymers were analyzed by selective link destruction and SEC which showed proof of EPOIM incorporation. SEC analysis of branching using parameters based on Rg and Rh agreed with the proposed architecture.

    14. Microwave-assisted ring-opening polymerization of trimethylene carbonate in the presence of ionic liquid (pages 5857–5863)

      Liqiong Liao, Chao Zhang and Shaoqin Gong

      Version of Record online: 1 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22337

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      Poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) was effectively synthesized by microwave-assisted ring-opening polymerization of trimethylene carbonate in the presence of 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim]BF4) ionic liquid. The number-average molar mass (Mn) of PTMC synthesized in the presence of a small amount of [bmim]BF4 (5 wt %) was much higher than that produced in bulk at the same reaction time. In the presence of 5 wt % [bmim]BF4, PTMC with a Mn of 36,400 g/mol was obtained at 5 W for only 60 min.

    15. A doubly responsive AB diblock copolymer: RAFT synthesis and aqueous solution properties of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-block-4-vinylbenzoic acid) (pages 5864–5871)

      Andrew B. Lowe, Marry Torres and Ran Wang

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22338

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      The trithiocarbonate-mediated RAFT synthesis and aqueous solution properties of an AB diblock copolymer of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and 4-vinylbenzoic acid (VBA) in organic media is described. The controlled polymerization of the block copolymer is demonstrated as well as the dual responsive nature of the block copolymer in water. Specifically, the ability to form both normal and inverse multimeric aggregates as a function of solution pH and temperature is demonstrated using a combination of 1H NMR spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    16. Small band gap conjugated polymers based on thiophene–thienopyrazine copolymers (pages 5872–5883)

      Kai-Fang Cheng, Cheng-Liang Liu and Wen-Chang Chen

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22339

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      The band gaps of the thiophene (TH)-thienopyrazine (TP) conjugated copolymers were varied significantly by the thiophene content due to the effects of bond length alternation and intramolecular charge transfer.

    17. Magnetic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microspheres by dispersion and inverse emulsion polymerization (pages 5884–5898)

      Hana Macková, Daniela Králová and Daniel Horák

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22341

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      Novel magnetic thermally responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microspheres were developed by inverse emulsion polymerization in the presence of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The effects of several variables, such as the concentration of γ-Fe2O3, N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide crosslinking agent, Span 80 surfactant, 2,2′-azobis(2-methyloctanenitrile) initiator, and polymerization temperature on the properties of the microspheres, including swelling and thermoresponsive behavior, were investigated.

    18. Acyl chloride-facilitated condensation polymerization for the synthesis of heat-sensitive poly(anhydride-ester)s (pages 5899–5915)

      Haitao Qian and Edith Mathiowitz

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22343

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      A new polycondensation method, acyl chloride-facilitated condensation polymerization method, was developed for the synthesis of heat-sensitive, ring-forming poly(anhydride-ester)s. This method circumvents the problems of the classic melt condensation polymerization in polyanhydride synthesis. Using chlorinated and acylated carboxylic acids as intermediates, the polymerization could be carried out at 120 or 135 °C to yield poly(anhydride-ester)s with minimal side-reactions, such as ring formation and depolymerization. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    19. Radiation-induced fabrication of polymer nanoporous materials from microphase-separated structure of diblock copolymers as a template (pages 5916–5922)

      Ryojun Sekine, Nobuhiro Sato, Tomochika Matsuyama, Satoshi Akasaka and Hirokazu Hasegawa

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22344

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      Nanoporous films were fabricated from polybutadiene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) diblock copolymers through simultaneous crosslinking and degradation by γ-irradiation. A polybutadiene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) microphase-separated film with poly(methyl methacrylate) cylinders in the polybutadiene matrix was irradiated with γ-rays to yield the cylindrical holes by poly(methyl methacrylate) degradation, maintaining the original microphase-separated structure reinforced by polybutadiene crosslinking.

    20. Synthesis of crosslinkable fluorinated polyesters for optical waveguide devices (pages 5923–5931)

      Xu Fei, Juan Hu, Haiming Zhang, Pengyu Sha, Jicheng Piao, Zhanchen Cui and Daming Zhang

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22345

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      The fluorinated polyesters display excellent thermal stability, good film-forming properties, and tunable refractive indices. Furthermore, the polyesters can be crosslinked both thermally and photochemically, obtained material with good chemical resistance and higher glass transition temperature. Straight waveguides have been processed by RIE from the polyesters and exhibited low propagation losses at 1550 nm.

    21. Low potential electrochemical polymerization of diphenyl ether and characterization of its polymers (pages 5932–5941)

      Jingkun Xu, Liang Wan, Yuzhen Li, Houting Liu, Shouzhi Pu and Liang Shen

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22346

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      Novel poly(diphenyl ether) (PDPE) has been polymerized electrochemically in BFEE containing 5% concentrated sulfuric acid (by volume). PDPE films obtained from this medium showed good redox activity and stability even in concentrated sulfuric acid and as-formed PDPE was a good blue-light emitter. Infrared spectroscopy and quantum chemistry calculations indicated that the electropolymerization of DPE occurred mainly at C4 and C4′.

    22. Preparation of temperature-responsive polymer gels physically immobilizing core-shell type bioconjugates (pages 5942–5948)

      Atsushi Harada, Kunio Johnin, Akifumi Kawamura and Kenji Kono

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22347

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      To obtain temperature responsive polymer gels physically immobilized core-shell type bioconjugates, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) gels were prepared by redox polymerization in the presence of core-shell type bioconjugates, which were core-crosslinked polyion complex micelles formed from the mixture of bovine pancreas trypsin and poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(α,β-aspartic acid). The phase transition temperature of PNIPAAm gels physically immobilized bioconjugates did not only depend on the amount of bioconjugates but also on crosslinking density. In addition, the enzymatic activity of bioconjugates was essentially maintained even in PNIPAAm gels, although enzymatic reaction rate was apparently controlled by temperature. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    23. ABA-type liquid crystalline triblock copolymers via nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization: Design, synthesis, and morphologies (pages 5949–5956)

      Long-Cheng Gao, Qi-Wei Pan, Chao Wang, Yi Yi, Xiao-Fang Chen, Xing-He Fan and Qi-Feng Zhou

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22348

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      We have designed and synthesized rod–coil–rod triblock copolymers of controlled molecular weight by two-step nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization, where the rod part consists of “mesogen-jacketed liquid crystalline polymer” (MJLCP). The MJLCP segment examined in our studies is poly{2,5-bis[(4-methoxyphenyl)oxycarbonyl]styrene} (MPCS) while the coil part is polyisoprene (PI). The results confirmed that the block copolymers were comprised of microphase-separated low amorphous PI and high Tg PMPCS blocks. Liquid crystallinity studies demonstrated that the block copolymers formed nematic liquid crystal phase. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    24. Triarylamine N-functionalized 3,6-linked carbazole main chain polymers and copolymers: Preparation and physical properties (pages 5957–5967)

      Akbar Kulasi, Hunan Yi and Ahmed Iraqi

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22349

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      9-Triarylamine-substituted 3,6-linked carbazole polymers and alternating copolymers with 2,5-diphenyl-[1,3,4]oxadiazole and 4,7-benzo[1,2,5]thiadiazole were prepared. The carbazole homopolymer as well as the copolymer with 2,5-diphenyl-[1,3,4]oxadiazole provided wide band gap polymers with narrow emission bands. The carbazole copolymer with 4,7-benzo[1,2,5]thiadiazole provided narrower band gap materials, with emission in the orange part of the electromagnetic spectrum. All polymers were found to be thermally stable and displayed low ionization potentials.

    25. Selective polymerization of functional monomers with Novozym 435 (pages 5968–5978)

      Martijn A. J. Veld, Anja R. A. Palmans and E. W. Meijer

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22350

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      This paper describes the enzymatic polymerization with Novozym 435 of two readily available functional monomers without the use of protection/deprotection strategies to directly yield functional polymers. Excellent selectivity was observed in the enzymatic polymerization of the three hydroxy-functional isopropyl aleuriteate yielding a polymer with pendant hydroxy groups. Additionaly, co-polymers of isopropyl aleuriteate and ε-caprolactone with varying composition were synthesized and the posibility of post-modification of these polymers was shown. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    26. Polymers from a levopimaric acid–acrylic acid Diels–Alder adduct: Synthesis and characterization (pages 5979–5990)

      Ioan Bicu and Fanica Mustata

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22352

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      New ketone type linear polymers were synthesized by the advanced dehydrodecarboxylation of the Diels–Alder adduct between levopimaric acid and acrylic acid, or its ketone derivative, as shown in figure. The polyketones turned out to be excellent tackifiers in adhesive formulae. The ketone polymers were condensed with diamines to give crosslinked polyazomethines. The thermal studies proved that the last polymers were substances with good thermal stability. When the diamine was one aromatic, the polyazomethine showed a high thermal stability.

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