Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 46 Issue 22

15 November 2008

Volume 46, Issue 22

Pages 7287–7583

  1. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Articles
    3. Rapid Communication
    1. Synthesis and characterization of organic/inorganic hybrid star polymers of 2,2,3,4,4,4-hexafluorobutyl methacrylate and octa(aminophenyl)silsesquioxane nano-cage made via atom transfer radical polymerization (pages 7287–7298)

      H. Hussain, B. H. Tan, C. S. Gudipati, Y. Xaio, Y. Liu, Thomas P. Davis and C.B. He

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23033

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      The synthesis of well-defined organic/inorganic hybrid fluorinated star polymers are carried out by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 2,2,3,4,4,4-hexafluorobutyl methacrylate (HFBMA) using octa(aminophenyl)silsesquioxane (OAPS) nano-cage as initiator. ATR polymerization of HFBMA is carried out in trifluorotoluene at 75 °C using CuCl/2,2-bipyridine or N,N,N′,N″,N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine as catalyst system. The OAPS/PHFBMA hybrid stars form spherical particles of ∼ 120–180 nm after solvent (THF) evaporation as revealed by TEM micrographs. Furthermore, thermal and surface properties of the obtained hybrid star polymers are reported.

    2. Titanium tetrachloride supported on atom transfer radical polymerized poly(methyl acrylate-co-1-octene) as catalyst for ethylene polymerization (pages 7299–7309)

      Sukhdeep Kaur, Gurmeet Singh and Virendra K. Gupta

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23034

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      High density linear polyethylenes with broad molecular weight distributions were polymerized using synthesized poly(methyl acrylate-co-1-octene) supported titanium tetrachloride catalysts. Three catalysts with different composition of titanium showed round shaped morphology with even distributions of titanium and chlorine on the surface. The polymeric matrix onto which the titanium species were coordinated were synthesized by ARGET ATRP of methyl acrylate and 1-octene using Cu(0) as reducing agent with CuBr2/Me6TREN as catalyst system with EBriB as initiator.

    3. Design, synthesis, and characterization of a combined main-chain/side-chain liquid crystalline polymer based on mesogen-jacketed liquid crystal polymer via atom transfer radical polymerization (pages 7310–7320)

      Helou Xie, Tianhui Hu, Xuefei Zhang, Hailaing Zhang, Erqiang Chen and Qifeng Zhou

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23035

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      A novel combined main-chain/side-chain liquid crystalline polymer (MCSCLCP) with a mesogen-jacketed liquid-crystal polymer as the rigid-rod backbone and biphenyl as the pendant was designed and synthesized. Compared with other MCSCLCPs, the polymer we designed can be easily obtained via atom transfer radical polymerization. The polymer has three different liquid crystal phases with the phase transition temperatures increased with increasing molecular weight. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    4. Block copolymer micelles conjugated with anti-EGFR antibody for targeted delivery of anticancer drug (pages 7321–7331)

      Taiho Noh, Yeon Hee Kook, Chiyoung Park, Hyewon Youn, Hana Kim, Eun Tax Oh, Eun Kyung Choi, Heon Joo Park and Chulhee Kim

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23036

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      A cancer targeting ligand, anti-EGFR, was introduced onto the PEG–PCL block copolymer micelle which contains a hydrophobic anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). In vitro studies using RKO cells demonstrated that anti-EGFR-micelle with DOX showed remarkably enhanced internalization of the micelles into the cell and increased cytotoxicity compared with the results with DOX-micelle which does not contain targeting ligands. The PEG–PCL block copolymer micelle with anti-EGFR targeting moiety would be an efficient nanovehicle for selective cellular uptake to the EGFR-expressed cancer cells. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com]

    5. Influence of adjusted hydrophilic–hydrophobic lengths in sulfonated multiblock copoly(ether sulfone) membranes for fuel cell application (pages 7332–7341)

      Kazuhiro Nakabayashi, Kazuya Matsumoto, Tomoya Higashihara and Mitsuru Ueda

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23038

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      The influence of adjusted hydrophilic and hydrophobic unit lengths in sulfonated multiblock copoly(ether sulfone)s to their membranes' properties, such as water uptake, dimensional stability, oxidative stability, proton conductivity, morphology has been investigated. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    6. Thiophene–phenylene/naphthalene-based step-ladder copolymers (pages 7342–7353)

      Torsten W. Bünnagel, Benjamin S. Nehls, Frank Galbrecht, Kristina Schottler, Christof J. Kudla, Markus Volk, João Pina, João S. Seixas de Melo, Hugh D. Burrows and Ullrich SCherf

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23039

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      The synthesis of a series of step-ladder copolymers based on thienylene–phenylene–thienylene and thienylene–naphthylene–thienylene building blocks has been carried out in a microwave-assisted Stille-type cross-coupling reaction. The optical properties of the copolymers were investigated both in solution, at room and low temperature, or in solid state. The coplanar structure of the central ladder segment has been proved by X-ray crystallography of a model compound.

    7. Novel thermally stable triarylamine-containing aromatic polyamides bearing anthrylamine chromophores for highly efficient green-light-emitting materials (pages 7354–7368)

      Hung-ju Yen and Guey-Sheng Liou

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23040

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      A series of novel polyamides with pendent anthrylamine units were prepared and exhibited useful levels of thermal stability associated with relatively high thermal stability. These aromatic polyamides I exhibited highly photoluminescence quantum yield in NMP solution ranges from 55 to 74% due to the introduction of anthrylamine chromophores. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com]

    8. Radical and cationic photopolymerization: New pyrylium and thiopyrylium salt-based photoinitiating systems (pages 7369–7375)

      Mohamad El-Roz, Jacques Lalevée, Fabrice Morlet-Savary, Xavier Allonas and Jean Pierre Fouassier

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23041

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      New photoinitiating systems based on (thio)pyrylium/thiols (or disulfides) and (thio)pyrylium/silanes are proposed. The high efficiency of these combinations compared to the actual available reference systems is ascribed to the reactivity of the generated thiyl or silyl radicals. Their thermal and photochemical stability is excellent. Colorless coatings are obtained. The coinitiators proposed here should lead to a revival of interest for the (thio)pyrylium salts in photoinitiating systems for new applications of photopolymerization reactions under visible lights. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    9. Polymerization of methyl acrylate mediated by copper(0)/Me6-TREN in hydrophobic media enhanced by phenols; Single electron transfer-living radical polymerization (pages 7376–7385)

      Peter M. Wright, Giuseppe Mantovani and David M. Haddleton

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23042

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      Phenol has been used as an additive to enhance the rate of Single Electron Transfer-Living Radical Polymerization (SET-LRP) in toluene at ambient temperature. A direct relationship between reaction time and amount of phenol added has been found with the optimum amount being approximately 20 equivalents of phenol with respect to initiator. Polymerization of methyl acrylate has been carried out in the presence of varying amounts. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com].

    10. Polymer functionalization by free radical addition to alkynes (pages 7386–7394)

      Wei Wu and J. Scott Parent

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23043

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      A new chemical modification of saturated polymers involving free radical addition to mono-substituted alkynes is presented and examined in terms of reaction yield, graft structure, and changes to molecular weight. Solvent-free, peroxide-initiated reactions of ethyl propiolate and poly(ethylene oxide) provide good yields of ethyl (2-E,Z)-3-alkylacrylates, whereas less efficient hydrogen atom donation by polyethylene impacts negatively on reaction yields and encourages alkyne oligomerization. Model compounds are used to characterize alkyne grafting products, and to probe the relationship between reagent properties, reaction yields, and product structures.

    11. A new approach for controlling birefringent property of cyclic olefin copolymers (pages 7395–7400)

      Hoang The Ban, Hideaki Hagihara, Kei Nishii, Yasuo Tsunogae, Shuichi Nojima and Takeshi Shiono

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23044

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      A new type of cyclic olefin copolymers with a controllable birefringent property was successfully synthesized through the random incorporation of styrene units, which possesses a negative birefringence into the norbornene–ethylene sequences, which exhibit an inherently positive birefringence using a fluorenylamidodimethyltitanium-based catalyst. The mutual compensation between these opposite-sign birefringences effectively reduced the birefringent magnitudes of the prepared terpolymer. When the S content in the terpolymers was optimized, it is possible to synthesize norbornene–ethylene–styrene terpolymer that exhibits an extremely low birefringent magnitude close to zero regardless of high degrees of chain orientation. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    12. Efficient tuning nonlinear optical properties: Synthesis and characterization of a series of novel poly(aryleneethynylene)s co-containing BODIPY (pages 7401–7410)

      Mei Zhu, Li Jiang, Mingjian Yuan, Xiaofeng Liu, Canbin Ouyang, Haiyan Zheng, Xiaodong Yin, Zicheng Zuo, Huibiao Liu and Yuliang Li

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23045

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      A series of novel conjugated poly(aryleneethynylene)s (PAEs) co-containing BODIPY have been synthesized and characterized, and their nonlinear optical properties were studied using the Z-scan technique. Interestingly, the introduction of the BODIPY skeleton into the PAEs backbone rendered the copolymers with evident nonlinear optical properties; moreover, the third-order nonlinear optical properties of the polymers enhanced regularly with the increase of the BODIPY component of the copolymers, indicating that the BODIPY component played decisive roles in enhancing the nonlinear optical properties. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.].

    13. Copolymerization of ethylene and norbornene using cyclopentadienylzirconium trichloride activated by isobutyl-modified methylaluminoxane (pages 7411–7418)

      Osamu Nishizawa, Hideki Misaka, Ryosuke Sakai, Toyoji Kakuchi and Toshifumi Satoh

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23046

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      The copolymerization of ethylene (E) and norbornene (NB) was investigated using the commercially available and inexpensive catalyst system, cyclopentadienylzirconium trichloride (CpZrCl3)/isobutyl-modified methylaluminoxane (MMAO), at a moderate polymerization temperature in toluene. The CpZrCl3/MMAO ([Al]/[Zr] = 1000) catalyst system with the [NB] of 2.77 mol L−1 and ethylene of 0.70 MPa at 50 °C showed the highest activity of 1690 kg molZr−1 h−1 and molecular weight of 21,100 g mol−1. The 13C NMR analysis showed that the CpZrCl3/MMAO catalyst system produced the E-NB random copolymer with a number of NB homosequences such as the NN dyad and NNN triad.

    14. Highly soluble green-emitting Ir(III) complexes with 9-(6-phenyl-pyridin-3-ylmethyl)-9H-carbazole ligands and their application to polymer light-emitting diodes (pages 7419–7428)

      Min Ju Cho, Jae Il Kim, Chang Seop Hong, Young Min Kim, Young Wook Park, Byeong-Kwon Ju and Dong Hoon Choi

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23047

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      Highly organic soluble Ir(III) complexes with 9-(6-phenyl-pyridin-3-ylmethyl)-9H-carbazole were simply synthesized, and the solubility of the new complex was significantly improved as when compared with the conventional green-emitting Ir(ppy)3. The pure complexes were utilized to prepare electrophosphorescent polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). The device performances were observed to be relatively better or comparable with those of Ir(ppy)3 based poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) systems. The sample made of a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) doped with Ir(Czppy)3 exhibited green electrophosphorescence with a maximum EQE of 7.79%, which is higher than that achieved in Ir(ppy)3-based device with an identical device configuration. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    15. Dispersion polymerization of vinyl monomers in supercritical carbon dioxide in the presence of drug molecules: A one-pot route for the preparation of controlled delivery systems (pages 7429–7446)

      Alessandro Galia, Onofrio Scialdone, Gianpiero Ferraro and Giuseppe Filardo

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23048

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      The polymerization of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone in supercritical carbon dioxide in the presence of ibuprofen as a model drug was investigated as a new one-pot process for the preparation of polymer-based drug delivery systems. In all the experiments, a significant part of the drug was entrapped inside the polymer particles and dissolved more slowly with respect to the pure compound. Copolymerization with methylmethacrylate was the most effective route to obtain a system with sustained temporal release of the drug molecule. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    16. Degradation of RAFT polymers in a cyclic ether studied via high resolution ESI-MS: Implications for synthesis, storage, and end-group modification (pages 7447–7461)

      Till Gruendling, Russell Pickford, Michael Guilhaus and Christopher Barner-Kowollik

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23050

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      Right: Quantitative transformation of cumyldithiobenzoate functional poly(methyl methacrylate) is observed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry upon storage of the functional polymer in cyclic ether (tetrahydrofuran) containing trace amounts of hydroperoxides. The single product consists of hydroperoxide functional polymer. Left: The postulated main degradation pathway of cumyldithiobenzoate terminated poly(methyl methacrylate) in hydroperoxide containing tetrahydrofuran. The mechanism is strongly supported by data obtained from high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    17. Water-soluble dendritic-conjugated polyfluorenes: Synthesis, characterization, and interactions with DNA (pages 7462–7472)

      Minghui Yu, Libing Liu and Shu Wang

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23051

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      A new series of cationic water-soluble dendritic-conjugated polyfluorenes (PFP-G0-2) were synthesized and characterized. Their fluorescence quantum efficiencies enhance as the dendritic generation grows because higher generation dendrons prevent the formation of π-stacking aggregates between conjugated polymer backbones. The PFP-G2 with highest generation of dendritic side chains forms most stable complex with dsDNA. These water-soluble dendritic-conjugated polyfluorenes may prove useful in biosensor application or probing gene delivery.

    18. Epoxy/amine-functionalized short-length vapor-grown carbon nanofiber composites (pages 7473–7482)

      Soo-Na Ahn, Hwa-Jeong Lee, Bang-Jun Kim, Loon-Seng Tan and Jong-Beom Baek

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23052

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      Short length vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (SL-VGCNF) was functionalized with 4-aminobenzoic acid to aminobenzoyl-functionalized VGCNF (AF-VGCNF). The AF-VGCNF as a co-curing agent and 4,4′-methylenedianiline (MDA) as a curing agent were mixed with epoxy resin by simple mechanical stirring. The mixture was cured at elevated mixture. The resultant composites displayed uniform dispersion of AF-VGCNFs into cured epoxy matrix and the both tensile modulus and strength of the composites were improved as compared to those of pure epoxy resin.

    19. Bismuth halide-catalyzed polymerizations of ε-caprolactone (pages 7483–7490)

      Mohammed Lahcini, Gert Schwarz and Hans R. Kricheldorf

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23054

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      The usefulness of BiF3, BiCl3, BiBr3, and BiJ3 as catalyst for ring-opening polymerizations of ε-caprolactone was explored. BiF3 was inactive, and BiJ3 was the most efficient catalyst yielding Mns up to 80,000 Da. All experimental findings suggest a coordination-insertion mechanism.

    20. Micelle-to-vesicle transition induced by oligonucleotide in SDS/DEAB mixed system with a net negative charge (pages 7491–7504)

      Xia Guo, Hua Li, Zhiyun Gong, Fengmin Zhang, Songyun Zheng and Rong Guo

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23055

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      Oligonucleotide can induce SDS/DEAB mixed micelles to transform to vesicles (left figure) at the temperature higher than tc (the critical temperature for micelle-to-vesicle transition). Moreover, the tc depends on the size and base composition of oligonucleotide (right figure). A lower tc suggests a higher facilitation efficiency of oligonucleotide on micelle-to-vesicle transition. Thus, the ability of oligonucleotide to induce micelle-to-vesicle transition is closely dependent on its size and base composition. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    21. Electronic structure and optical properties of poly[3-(4-octylphenoxy)thiophene]: Experimental and theoretical studies (pages 7505–7516)

      Farid Ouhib, Ahmed Dkhissi, Pierre Iratçabal, Roger C. Hiorns, Abdel Khoukh, Jacques Desbrières, Claude Pouchan and Christine Dagron-Lartigau

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23056

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      The preparation and the properties of a phenoxy-substituted polythiophene, poly[3-(4-octylphenoxy)thiophene] (POPOT), are presented. Both oxidative and modified Grignard metathesis (GRIM) polymerizations were evaluated. POPOT microstructures were studied by one- and two-dimensional NMR. Absorption spectra of POPOTs obtained in solution and in the solid state showed clear red shifts with respect to poly(3-alkylthiophene)s. The POPOT red shift in going from solution to solid states is correlated with results from density functional theory electronic structure calculations. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    22. Deep-red light-emitting phosphorescent dendrimer encapsulated tris-[2-benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-pyridyl] iridium (III) core for light-emitting device applications (pages 7517–7533)

      Kyung Moon Jung, Kyung Hwan Kim, Jung-Il Jin, Min Ju Cho and Dong Hoon Choi

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23058

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      New deep-red light-emitting phosphorescent dendrimers with hole-transporting carbazole dendrons were synthesized. We fabricated a host-free dendrimer EL device with configuration ITO/PEDOT:PSS (40 nm)/dendrimer (55 nm)/BCP (10 nm)/Alq3 (40 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm), and we characterized device performance. The multilayered devices showed luminance of 561 cd/m2 at 383.4 mA/cm2 (12 V) for 15, 1302 cd/m2 at 321.3 mA/cm2 (14 V) for 16, and 422 cd/m2 at 94.4 mA/cm2 (18 V) for 17. The third-generation dendrimer, 17ext = 6.12% at 7.5 V), showed the highest external quantum efficiency (EQE) with an increase in the density of the light-harvesting carbazole dendron. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    23. A new type of eco-friendly resist based on nonchemically amplified system (pages 7534–7542)

      Ji Young Park, Je Moon Yun and Jin-Baek Kim

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23059

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      Novel water-soluble photopolymers were designed to be useful as environmentally benign negative photoresists. Upon irradiation, the diazoketo groups in polymer side chains afford ketenes that react with neighbor hydroxyl groups to provide water-insoluble polymer networks. The single component resist formulated with this polymer showed 0.8 μm line and space patterns using a mercury-xenon lamp in a contact printing mode.

    24. A facile synthetic strategy for hyperbranched polymer via combining free radical telomerization and polycondensation (pages 7543–7555)

      Jianhua Liu, Fu Zhan, Qi Fu, Xiangyang Zhu and Wenfang Shi

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23060

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      Above scheme is a schematic illustration for the preparation of hyperbranched polymer via telomerization and subsequent polycondensation. A facile strategy combining free radical telomerization and polycondensation to prepare hyperbranched polymers was proposed in this article. By selecting a suitable telogen, a vinyl monomer and their feed ratio, the telomer obtained by telomerization could be regarded as an ABn type monomer to prepare a hyperbranched polymer via conventional polycondensation. The principles for selecting telogens and vinyl monomers were proposed firstly, and then two systems were selected to prove the proposed strategy. It was demonstrated that hyperbranched polymers with moderate degree of branching could be obtained in such a pseudo one-pot process.

    25. Poly(ethylene glycol)-based amphiphilic model conetworks: Synthesis by RAFT polymerization and characterization (pages 7556–7565)

      Mariliz Achilleos, Thomas M. Legge, Sébastien Perrier and Costas S. Patrickios

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23061

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      Amphiphilic polymer conetworks were prepared by the step-wise reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of hydrophobic monomers and cross-linkers using α,ω-bis(2-cyanoprop-2-yl dithiobenzoate)-PEG as a bifunctional RAFT macrochain transfer agent. The resulting conetworks were subsequently characterized in terms of their aqueous swelling properties. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    26. Synthesis and evaluation of properties of novel poly(benzimidazole-amide)s (pages 7566–7577)

      Juan J. Ferreiro, José G. de la Campa, Angel E. Lozano, J. de Abajo and Jack Preston

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23049

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      Poly(benzimidazole amide)s were synthesized from aromatic diamines and dicarboxylic acids containing preformed benzimidazole rings. Properties of the reported polymers were dependent on the chemical nature and, the symmetric or asymmetric character of the monomers playing a crucial role. Polymers were soluble in organic aprotic solvents, showed glass transition temperatures over 300 °C and outstanding mechanical resistance. Water uptake of the reported poly(benzimidazole amide)s was found to be specially high, up to 20%. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

  2. Rapid Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Articles
    3. Rapid Communication
    1. You have free access to this content
      Folate-mediated cell uptake of shell-crosslinked spheres and cylinders (pages 7578–7583)

      Ke Zhang, Raffaella Rossin, Aviv Hagooly, Zhiyun Chen, Michael J. Welch and Karen L. Wooley

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23020

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      Shell-crosslinked spherical and cylindrical nanoparticles bearing folate were constructed. Confocal microscopy suggests higher uptake by KB cells of the cylindrical nanoparticle in 4 h. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

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