Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

15 April 2008

Volume 46, Issue 8

Pages 2601–2896

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      Self-assembled organic nanotubes: Toward attoliter chemistry (pages 2601–2611)

      Toshimi Shimizu

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22652

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      Recent advances in the nanotube world have entered a new era, in which one can produce nanotubes consisting of all materials and elements. History, classification, and our recent topics on self-assembled organic nanotubes are described. In particular, we focus on the organic nanotubes capable of performing endo-sensing for the encapsulation and transport of biomacromolecules in an attoliter volume nanochannel, whose inner surfaces are rationally modified with diverse functionalities. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

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    1. Networks and conetworks of PIB-based cyanoacrylate-telechelic prepolymers: Synthesis, characterization, and properties (pages 2612–2623)

      Suresh K. Jewrajka and J. P. Kennedy

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22591

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      Novel networks and conetworks were prepared by initiating the polymerization of cyanoacrylate-telechelic three-arm star polyisobutylene [Ø(PIB-CA)3] and the copolymerization of Ø(PIB-CA)3/2,4,4-trimethylpentane cyanoacrylate (TMP-CA) mixtures, respectively, by the use of strong nucleophiles, such as NEt2-telechleic linear or three-arm star PIBs [Ø(PIB-NEt2)2 or 3]. The reactants were combined in the bulk in double-barrel syringes by the reaction injection molding (RIM) technique. The cartoon helps to visualize the RIM technique. Conditions for the preparation of rubbery materials for possible biomedical applications were developed. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    2. Preparation of amphiphilic ternary block copolymers with PEO as the middle block and the effect of PEO position on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of copolymers (pages 2624–2631)

      Yi Zhang, Mugang Pan, Chao Liu and Junlian Huang

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22592

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      The ternary block copolymers PS-b-PEO-b-PtBA with PEO as the middle block were prepared by successive nitroxide-mediated polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization using PEO with α-hydroxyl-ω-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy end groups (TEMPO-PEO-OH) as prepolymer. The PEO block at the middle of the copolymer could weaken the interaction between PS and PtBA blocks, that the Tg of the two blocks were approximate to their corresponding homopolymers.

    3. PMMA colloid particles armored by clay layers with PDMAEMA polymer brushes (pages 2632–2639)

      Jian Zhang, Kaiqiang Chen and Hanying Zhao

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22593

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      PMMA colloid particles stabilized and initiated by clay layers with PDMAEMA polymer brushes were prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization. In a mixture of MMA and water, clay platelets with polymer brushes locate at the interface between oil and water. After polymerization, PMMA colloid particles armored by clay layers were produced.

    4. Water soluble poly(ethylene oxide) functionalized norbornene polymers (pages 2640–2648)

      Sterling F. Alfred, Zoha M. Al-Badri, Ahmad E. Madkour, Karen Lienkamp and Gregory N. Tew

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22594

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      Non-ionic water soluble polymers with low polydispersity were prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization. The synthetic approach presented allows synthesis of a variety of functionalized water soluble and amphiphilic ROMP based polymers.

    5. Convenient synthesis of poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate) from activated urethane derivatives of γ-benzyl-L-glutamate (pages 2649–2657)

      Yasutaka Kamei, Atsushi Nagai, Atsushi Sudo, Haruo Nishida, Kiyoshi Kikukawa and Takeshi Endo

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22595

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      Synthesis and polycondensation of a series of activated urethane-type derivatives of γ-benzyl-L-glutamate 1 was investigated. These urethanes 1 were reactive in polar solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, and N,N-dimethylacetamide, and were efficiently converted into poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate) (poly(BLG)) under mild conditions; at 60 °C. 1H NMR spectroscopic analyses of the reactions in situ revealed that the predominant pathway from 1 to poly(BLG) involved the intramolecular cyclization of 1 into the corresponding N-carboxyanhydride, with release of phenol and its successive ring-opening polymerization with release of carbon dioxide.

    6. Study on the preparation and the self-assembly of poly(propyleneimine)–poly(styrene) nanoparticles (pages 2658–2666)

      Yanjin Zhu, Zushun Xu and Changfeng Yi

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22596

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      Monodisperse poly(propyleneimine)-b-polystyrene particles with diameter were successfully prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization using 2-chloropropionamide derivative of poly(propyleneimine) dendrimer DAB-dendr-(NH2)32 (DAB-32-Cl) as the macroinitiator. The influence of several factors, such as reaction temperature, St concentration, reaction time, and concentration macroinitiator on the particles size, size distribution, and the morphology of the dendrimer-b-PSt particles, was investigated. In a selective solvent (DMF/H2O), polymers can self-assemble into different aggregate configurations such as regular microsphere and wire-like thread.

    7. Synthesis and characterization of acrylamide/acrylic acid hydrogels crosslinked using a novel diacrylate of glycerol to produce multistructured materials (pages 2667–2679)

      Luz Cecilia Lopez-Ureta, Eulogio Orozco-Guareño, Luis Emilio Cruz-Barba, Alejandro Gonzalez-Alvarez and Fernando Bautista-Rico

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22598

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      A novel crosslinking agent and the method to use it for the synthesis of acrylate-based hydrogels is proposed. This novel diacrylate of glycerol allows the generation of materials with well-defined microstructures in the dry state and unique meso- and macro-structures during swelling. These hierarchical materials exhibit a maximum swelling in water, which is lower than those of the structureless hydrogels. However, these multistructured hydrogels have enhanced mechanical properties. Control of the microstructure allows the generation of materials for different applications, that is, templates or smart materials that interact with electromagnetic radiation. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    8. 4,9-Dihydro-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b′]dithiophene-4,9-dione functionalized copolymers for organic photovoltaic devices (pages 2680–2688)

      Chunchang Zhao, Xiaohong Chen, Yong Zhang and Man-kit Ng

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22599

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      Several conjugated copolymers functionalized with 4,9-dihydro-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b′]dithiophene-4,9-dione are synthesized and their utility in the construction of organic solar cell is demonstrated. All of the data indicates that the power conversion efficiency can be improved upon incorporation of a new conjugated diketone unit in the polymer backbone.

    9. Synthesis of a hyperbranched polythioketal with 100% degree of branching (pages 2689–2700)

      Warapon Sinananwanich and Mitsuru Ueda

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22602

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      A hyperbranched polythioketal has been prepared from polycondensation of an AB2 monomer in an acidic medium. The obtained polymer was characterized by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, which confirmed that the polymer was a 100% branched hyperbranched polymer.

    10. Reverse ATRP process of acrylonitrile in the presence of ionic liquids (pages 2701–2707)

      Chen Hou, Rongjun Qu, Chunnuan Ji, Changmei Sun and Chunhua Wang

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22603

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      An ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4mim][BF4]), was first used as the solvent in azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN)-initiated RATRP of acrylonitrile (AN) with FeCl3/succinic acid (SA) as the catalyst system. The rate of polymerization in [C4mim][BF4] was considerably faster than in bulk. The linearity of the plot indicates that the polymerization was approximately first-order with respect to the monomer concentration. Polyacrylonitrile obtained was successfully used as a macroinitiator to proceed the chain extension polymerization in [C4mim][BF4]. [C4mim][BF4] and the catalyst system could be easily recycled and reused and had no effect on the living nature of polymerization.

    11. A new controllable approach to synthesize hyperbranched poly(siloxysilanes) (pages 2708–2720)

      Sheng-Jie Wang, Xiao-Dong Fan, Jie Kong, Xin Wang, Yu-Yang Liu and Guo-Bin Zhang

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22604

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      A new controllable approach to prepare hyperbranched poly (siloxysilanes) from A2- and B′Bx-type monomers was developed in this work. The polymerization processes of A2- and B′Bx-type monomers were monitored by In situ FTIR. It was found that silicon hydride can selectively react with vinyl silane groups first, where ABx and B2x intermediates may be produced, and the intermediates further conduct polymerization to form hyperbranched polymers. Comparing with uncontrollable synthetic routes directly from ABx monomers, this approach possesses an important advantage that molecular weights and their polydispersity of the polymers can be regulated expediently via adjusting the feeding ratio of two monomers.

    12. Iterative tandem catalysis of racemic AB monomers (pages 2721–2733)

      üMit Kanca, Jeroen Van Buijtenen, Bart A. C. Van As, Peter A. Korevaar, Jef A. J. M. Vekemans, Anja R. A. Palmans and E. W. Meijer

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22605

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      This article describes the synthesis of racemic AB monomers encompassing a secondary hydroxy group and an ester group. By using iterative tandem catalysis, a polymerization technique that relies on the concurrent action of an enantioselective transesterification catalyst (Novozym 435) and a racemization catalyst (Shvo's ruthenium catalyst), the racemic AB monomers can quantitatively be converted into chiral polyesters. The use of isopropyl esters and/or the strict exclusion of oxygen during the polymerization affords chiral polymers of good molecular weight (Mp = 9.4 kg/mol) and high enantiomeric excess (92%). [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    13. Novel hepatoma-targeting micelles based on chemoenzymatic synthesis and self-assembly of galactose-functionalized ribavirin-containing amphiphilic random copolymer (pages 2734–2744)

      Xia Li, Qi Wu, Min Lu, Fu Zhang and Xianfu Lin

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22606

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      Hepatoma-targeting micelles were successfully prepared by self-assembly of galactose-functionalized ribavirin-containing amphiphilic random copolymer as novel drug delivery vehicles. The random copolymer was facilely obtained by a two-step chemoenzymatic synthetic method. Formation of micelle-type aggregates from the copolymer was verified by fluorescence probe technology. The micelles were well dispersed as spherical nanoparticles in water, whose hydrodynamic diameter was 217 6 19 nm. Their biological recognition to fluorescein-labeled peanut agglutinin proved the existence of galactose moieties on the surface of micelles. Moreover, the micelles had evident targeting function to hepG2 cells, and ribavirin could be slowly released from the system with pseudo zero-order kinetics. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    14. Ultrafast SET-LRP of methyl acrylate at 25 °C in alcohols (pages 2745–2754)

      Gerard Lligadas and Virgil Percec

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22607

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      Alcohols are expected to be excellent solvents that facilitate the single-electron transfer mediated living radical polymerization (SET-LRP) mediated by nascent Cu(0) species. This publication demonstrates the ultrafast SET-LRP of methyl acrylate initiated with bis(2-bromopropionyloxy)ethane and catalyzed by Cu(0)/Me6-TREN in alcohols and in their mixture with water at 25 °C. The structural analysis of the resulting polymers demonstrates the synthesis of perfectly bifunctional α,ω-dibromo poly(methyl acrylate)s.

    15. Boehmite nanorod-reinforced-polyethylenes and ethylene/1-octene thermoplastic elastomer nanocomposites prepared by in situ olefin polymerization and melt compounding (pages 2755–2765)

      Tobias S. Halbach, Yi Thomann and Rolf Mülhaupt

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22608

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      Polyolefin nanocomposites based upon nanoboehmites with variable aspect ratio (platelets and nanorods) have been synthesized by means of in situ ethylene polymerization or ethylene/1-octene copolymerization. A fine dispersion of the polar boehmite nanorods and nanoplatelets within the nonpolar hydrocarbon polymer matrix was obtained without requiring the addition of special dispersing agents or functionalized polyolefin compatibilizers. The addition of the boehmite nanofillers improved the stiffness without sacrificing high elongation at break.

    16. N-vinylcaprolactam-based microgels: Effect of the concentration and type of cross-linker (pages 2766–2775)

      Ainara Imaz and Jacqueline Forcada

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22609

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      New microgel particles produced by using N-vinylcaprolactam (VCL) and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) or N,N′-methylenbisacrylamide (BA) were synthesized in a batch reactor. The influence of the concentration and type of crosslinker on polymerization kinetics and colloidal characteristics of such temperature sensitive particles was studied. Partial and total conversions, final average diameters at collapsed state, and the swelling–deswelling behavior varied as a function of the type of crosslinker. These results were attributed to the higher solubility and stabilizing ability of PEGDA compared with that of BA. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    17. Polymerization of 3-ethynylthiophene with homogeneous and heterogeneous Rh catalysts (pages 2776–2787)

      Jan Svoboda, Jan Sedláček, Jiří Zedník, Gita Dvořáková, Olga Trhlíková, Dana Rédrová, Hynek Balcar and Jiří Vohlídal

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22611

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      Well soluble high-cis poly(3-ethynylthiophene) has been synthesized by polymerization of 3-ethynylthiophene induced with homogeneous catalysts [Rh(diene)acac] and [Rh(diene)Cl]2 and with heterogeneous catalysts prepared by anchoring [Rh(diene)Cl]2 on porous polybenzimidazole (diene = η22-cycloocta-1,5-diene and η22-norborna-2,5-diene). Polymer molecular weight ranged from Mw = 1.104 to Mw = 1.105 in dependence on the type of diene ligand and initial monomer concentration. In situ NMR study of polymerizations induced with [Rh(diene)acac] has revealed the transformation of acac ligands into free acetylacetone occurring since the early stage of polymerization, which suggests that this reaction is a part of the initiation.

    18. Synthesis, characterization, and fluorescence of pyrene-containing eight-arm star-shaped dendrimer-like copolymer with pentaerythritol core (pages 2788–2798)

      Weizhong Yuan, Jinying Yuan, Mi Zhou and Caiyuan Pan

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22612

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      Novel and well-defined pyrene-containing eight-arm star-shaped dendrimer-like copolymers PSt-b-(PCL-pyrene)2)4 were successfully achieved by combination of esterification, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), divergent reaction, ring-opening polymerization (ROP), and coupling reaction on the basis of pentaerythritol. The eight-arm star-shaped dendrimer-like copolymers presented unique thermal properties and crystalline morphologies, which were different from those of linear PCL. Fluorescence analysis indicated that (PSt-b-(PCL-pyrene)2)4 presented slightly stronger fluorescence intensity than 1-pyrenebutyric acid when the pyrene concentration of them was the same. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    19. Styrene 4-vinylbenzocyclobutene copolymer for microelectronic applications (pages 2799–2806)

      Ying-Hung So, Stephen F. Hahn, Yongfu Li and Molly T. Reinhard

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22613

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      4-Vinylbenzocyclobutene that was synthesized from 4-bromobenzocyclobutene and ethylene with Pd catalyst in one step was polymerized with styrene to form random copolymers. Thermal curing of copolymers with 22 mol % or more of 4-vinylbenzocyclobutene produced a thermoset polymer that did not show a glass transition temperature before decomposition at about 350 °C. The crosslinker polymer has a very low dielectric constant, dissipation factor, and water uptake that are highly desirable properties for high frequency-high speed mobile communication applications.

    20. Copolymerization of ethylene with cycloolefins by titanium complexes containing tridentate [oNSR] ligands (pages 2807–2819)

      Ming-Li Gao, Xiu-Li Sun, Yue-Feng Gu, Xiao-Li Yao, Chuan-Feng Li, Ji-Ye Bai, Cong Wang, Zhi Ma, Yong Tang, Zuowei Xie, Shi-Zheng Bu and Changtao Qian

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22614

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      A family of titanium complexes of the general formula [N-(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidene)-2-alkylsulfanylanilinato]Ti(IV)Cl35a-f was prepared from the reaction of TiCl4 with the potassium salts of the corresponding ligands. Complexes 5a-f (except for 5c) exhibited good to high catalytic activities in ethylene copolymerization with cycloolefins in the presence of MMAO. The n-alkylthio complexes 5a, 5d-f all exhibited good ethylene copolymerization capabilities with cycloolefins, which is superior to the corresponding phenylthio complex 5g.

    21. Synthesis and properties of novel polyimides from sulfonated binaphthalene dianhydride for proton exchange membranes (pages 2820–2832)

      Nanwen Li, Zhiming Cui, Suobo Zhang and Shenghai Li

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22616

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      A sulfonated dianhydride monomer, 6,6′-disulfonic-4,4′-binaphthyl-1,1′,8,8′-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (SBTDA), was successfully synthesized by direct sulfonation of the parent dianhydride, 4,4′-binaphthyl-1,1′,8,8′-tetracarboxylic dianhydride BTDA. A series of sulfonated homo/co-polyimides were prepared from SBTDA and various common nonsulfonated diamines. The resulting sulfonated polyimides exhibit excellent thermal stability and mechanical properties, and a combination of desirable properties, such as high proton conductivities of 0.25–0.31 S cm−1 at 80 °C and excellent water stability.

    22. Characterization of the micellar ring opening metathesis polymerization in water of a norbornene derivative initiated by Hoveyda-Grubbs' catalyst (pages 2833–2844)

      Anne-Françoise Mingotaud, Christophe Mingotaud and Wissam Moussa

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22617

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      A hydrophilic norbornene derivative was polymerized in a micellar system incorporating Hoveyda-Grubbs' catalyst. First a chemical physics study aimed at characterizing the solubility of this catalyst in the micelles. Second, a thorough kinetics study was performed and revealed that the polymer molar mass could be controlled. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    23. Preparation of a xanthate-terminated dextran by click chemistry: Application to the synthesis of polysaccharide-coated nanoparticles via surfactant-free ab initio emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate (pages 2845–2857)

      Julien Bernard, Maud Save, Benoit Arathoon and Bernadette Charleux

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22618

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      A dextran end-functionalized by a xanthate moiety was used as a macromolecular reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer agent in surfactant-free ab initio emulsion polymerization of VAc to form in-situ an amphiphilic block copolymer. The involvement of the dithiocarbonate group in the emulsion polymerization process allows the production of stable monodisperse poly(vinyl acetate) submicronic latex particles whereas ill-defined large latex particles were recovered by using the native dextran as steric stabilizer. The method afforded the preparation of high solids content (27%) latex coated by dextran as a renewable resource. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    24. Polymerization of 2-pentene with Ni(II) α-diimine complex/M-MAO catalyst and structure of the polymer (pages 2858–2863)

      Kiyoshi Endo and Yosiyuki Kondo

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22619

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      Polymerization of 2-pentene with [ArN[DOUBLE BOND]C(An)C(An)·NAr) NiBr2 (Ar[DOUBLE BOND]2,6-iPr2C6H3)) (1-Ni) /M-MAO catalyst was investigated. The polymerization of 2-pentene with 1-Ni/M-MAO catalyst gave a high molecular weight polymer, but no polymer was obtained from the polymerization of cis-2-pentene with 1-Ni/M-MAO catalyst. The polymer mainly consists of [BOND]CH2[BOND]CH2[BOND]CH (CH2CH3)[BOND], [BOND]CH2[BOND]CH2[BOND] CH2[BOND] CH(CH3)[BOND], [BOND]CH2[BOND]CH(CH2CH2CH3)[BOND], and methylene sequence [BOND](CH2)n[BOND] (n ≥ 5) units.

    25. Bidentate coordination effect on polycondensation of amino acid esters between metal triflates and methoxy groups (pages 2864–2868)

      Tadamasa Nemoto, Kensuke Naka and Yoshiki Chujo

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22620

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      To study on the bidentate coordination effect on the polycondensation of L-valinates between metal triflates as a Lewis acid and methoxy groups, we carried out the polycondensation of 2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl L-valinate (1a) and 2-methoxyphenyl L-valinate (1b) in the presence of the various kinds of rare-earth triflates in DMF solution at room temperature.

    26. Living ring-opening polymerization of ϵ-caprolactone with Ti alkoxides derived from the Cp2TiCl-catalyzed SET reduction of aldehydes (pages 2869–2877)

      Alexandru D. Asandei, Yanhui Chen, Olumide I. Adebolu and Christopher P. Simpson

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22621

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      A series of substituted benzaldehydes were investigated as initiators for the living ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone mediated by titanium alkoxides obtained from the Cp2TiCl-catalyzed reduction of the carbonyl group. The effect of the aldehyde functionality, reagent ratios, and temperature was studied to reveal a living polymerization in all cases with an optimum observed at 90 °C and [CL]/[Aldehyde]/[Cp2TiCl2]/[Zn]= 100/1/1/2. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

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      Polyfluorenes with on-chain dibenzoborole units—Synthesis and anion-induced photoluminescence quenching (pages 2878–2883)

      Vasco D. B. Bonifácio, Jorge Morgado and Ullrich Scherf

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22610

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      The photoluminescence response of a novel, random 9,9-dialkylfluorene/dibenzoborole copolymer toward a series of nine inorganic anions was studied both in solution and in thin films. Photoluminescence quenching with sensitivity in the micromolar range was observed for fluoride, cyanide, and iodide. Hereby, the interaction of the copolymer with fluoride/cyanide or iodide follows different quenching mechanisms. Such copolymers are promising solid-state anion sensors. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

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      A direct preparation of silica shell on polystyrene microspheres prepared by dispersion polymerization with polyvinylpyrrolidone (pages 2884–2890)

      Jinho Hong, Hyekyung Han, Chang Kook Hong and Sang Eun Shim

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22624

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      PS/silica core/shell structured microspheres were easily prepared in a simple process. Because of the acid-base interaction between the TEOS and seed particles prepared by dispersion polymerization, uniform silica shell was formed on the PVP-stabilized PS particles without additional PVP-coating process.

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      Synthesis of highly functionalized oligo- and copolyesters from a carbohydrate lactone (pages 2891–2896)

      Anita F. Haider and Charlotte K. Williams

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22615

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      The oligomerization of a carbohydrate derived lactone (tetra-O-acetyl-D-gluconolactone) is reported. The novel oligoester is used as a macroinitiator for lactide ring-opening polymerization.

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