Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

1 May 2008

Volume 46, Issue 9

Pages 2897–3154

  1. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Articles
    3. Rapid Communications
    1. Facile syntheses of 4-vinyl-1,2,3-triazole monomers by click azide/acetylene coupling (pages 2897–2912)

      Kenichi Takizawa, Hunaid Nulwala, Raymond J. Thibault, Peter Lowenhielm, Kohji Yoshinaga, Karen L. Wooley and Craig J. Hawker

      Version of Record online: 27 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22627

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      Triazole monomers are of great interest as they combine the stability and aromaticity of styrenics with the polarity of vinylpyridines and the structural versatility of acrylate/methacrylate derivatives. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    2. A “click” approach to ROMP block copolymers (pages 2913–2921)

      Stefan Hilf, Nils Hanik and Andreas F. M. Kilbinger

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22622

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      A synthetic route to alkyne end-functionalized olefin metathesis polymers has been developed. Such polymers allow the synthesis of diblock copolymers via conjugation with an azide end-functionalized second polymer using “click chemistry”. Due to their ability to carry a great variety of functional groups, the olefin metathesis polymers prepared using ruthenium-based initiators are particularly attractive for incorporation into block architectures. A new synthetic approach towards block copolymers in which one block is prepared by olefin metathesis is presented here.

    3. 2-[(Diphenylphosphino)methyl]pyridine as ligand for iron-based atom transfer radical polymerization (pages 2922–2935)

      Zhigang Xue, Seok Kyun Noh and Won Seok Lyoo

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22625

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      Controlled polymerization of methyl methacrylate was achieved by ATRP using FeBr2/2-[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]pyridine (DPPMP) catalytic system. It was found that with DPPMP as ligand, BPN initiated ATRP of MMA, producing polymers with controlled molecular weight and low polydispersity at 80°C. The MMA polymerization in bulk, toluene, anisole, and MEK followed first order kinetics with respect to the monomer. Deviation from theoretical molecular weight and slightly higher polydispersities were observed in some polar solvents.

    4. A practical way of grafting maleic anhydride onto polypropylene providing high anhydride contents without sacrificing excessive molar mass (pages 2936–2947)

      Gaëtan R. P. Henry, Xavier Drooghaag, Dimitri D. J. Rousseaux, Michel Sclavons, Jacques Devaux, Jacqueline Marchand-Brynaert and Véronique Carlier

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22628

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      The presence of N-bromosuccinimide during maleation of molten polypropylene inhibits degradation while promoting grafting levels and tuning the polypropylene crystallinity by random backbone epimerization. A panel of maleic-anhydride-grafted polypropylenes can be produced with semi-crystalline or elastomeric properties.

    5. Synthesis and applications of water-dispersible microspheres containing arborescent PAMAM surfaces (pages 2948–2959)

      Lan Jin, Hongbo Liu, Wuli Yang, Changchun Wang and Kui Yu

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22629

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      This article reports on a novel synthetic approach to water-dispersible microspheres with arborescent poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) chains grafted on their surface. Based on above maicrospheres, bright photoluminescent (PL) water-dispersible polymeric microspheres are fabricated readily via the reaction of the surface amine groups and traditional fluorescent molecules. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    6. Synthesis and liquid crystalline properties of poly(1-alkyne)s carrying triphenylene discogens (pages 2960–2974)

      Changmin Xing, Jacky W. Y. Lam, Keqing Zhao and Ben Zhong Tang

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22631

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      Triphenylene-containing poly(1-decyne)s are synthesized in high yields by [Rh(nbd)Cl]2 catalyst. The polymers are thermally stable and exhibit liquid crystallinity at elevated temperatures. The polymers with shorter and longer alkyl chain lengths adopt a homogeneous hexagonal columnar structure, while those with intermediate ones form mesophases with mixed structures. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    7. Preparation and chemical properties of soluble π-conjugated poly(aryleneethynylene) consisting of azabenzothiadiazole as the electron-accepting unit (pages 2975–2982)

      Hiroki Fukumoto and Takakazu Yamamoto

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22633

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      Organometallic polycondensation between the electron-accepting azabenzothiadiazole and the electron-donating dialkoxybenzene gives a soluble charge-transfer (CT) type π-conjugated poly(aryleneethynylene), PAE-AzaBzTdz. Addition of MeOH to a CHCl3 solution of PAE-AzaBzTdz leads to aggregation of the polymer to form stable colloidal particles. PAE-AzaBzTdz has a layer-to-layer stacked structure with an interlayer distance of 3.4 Å in the solid and the polymer molecules in the cast film are ordered on the surface of Pt plate as revealed by XRD patterns. PAE-AzaBzTdz responds to H+ to give a large (about by 110 nm) shift of the UV–vis absorption peak.

    8. New PVK-based nonlinear optical polymers: Enhanced nonlinearity and improved transparency (pages 2983–2993)

      Zhong'an Li, Shoucheng Dong, Pengcheng Li, Zhen Li, Cheng Ye and Jingui Qin

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22634

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      By applying the recent proposed concept of “suitable isolation groups,” new PVK-based NLO polymers, in which the subtle structure of the chromophore moieties in the side chain could be modified to adjusted the macroscopic NLO effects, were conveniently obtained through a post functionalization approach. The blue-shifted maximum absorptions of the polymers, in comparison with the corresponding free chromophore small molecules, indicated the presence of the effective site-isolation effect, which could boosted the second harmonic generation (SHG) coefficients of d33 value up to 28.6 pm/V. Their good optical transparency and enhanced nonlinearity made them good candidates for the practical photonic applications.

    9. Phosphorus-containing telechelic polyester-based ionomer: Facile synthesis and antidripping effects (pages 2994–3006)

      Xin-Guo Ge, Chuan Wang, Zhi Hu, Xing Xiang, Jun-Sheng Wang, De-Yi Wang, Cong-Ping Liu and Yu-Zhong Wang

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22636

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      The ionomer concept was introduced to the field of flame-retardant polyesters. A facile synthesis of phosphinate-containing PET-based ionomers was achieved by melt polycondensation. The flame retardancy and the effect of thermoreversible physical crosslinks on the melt-dripping of the ionomers were determined. The phosphorus-containing end groups increase the thermal stability of the copolyesters at low temperature, and promote the charring reaction at high temperature under air atmosphere. Furthermore, the high melt viscosity of the ionomer caused by the ionic aggregates may also play an important role in the anti-dripping effects. The ionomers show both excellent flame retardancy and anti-dripping effects.

    10. Near-infrared electroluminescence from fluorene-based copolymers (pages 3007–3013)

      Mingliang Sun, Xi Jiang, Li Wang, Chao He, Bin Du, Renqiang Yang and Yong Cao

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22638

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      Fluorene-based copolymers for near-infrared emitter containing narrow band gap chromophores have been synthesized. Devices from the resulted polymers emit 0.8–0.9μm wavelength light with the maximum external quantum efficiency 0.30%.

    11. Functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotube via surface reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and as lubricant additives (pages 3014–3023)

      Xiaowei Pei, Weimin Liu and Jingcheng Hao

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22639

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      It can be observed that the wear scar lubricated by functionalized MWCNT/lubricant is obviously smaller and exhibit mild scratches. However, large wear scar, sharp tracks and obvious scuffing are characterized for the wear scar lubricated by base lubricant. The results confirmed that the functionalized MWCNT composite exhibit good antiwear properties. This was attributed to the good dispersibility and core-shell structure of MWCNT-PSt composite, which can serve as spacers, preventing rough contact between counterparts, thereby improving the antiwear property of base lubricant considerably.

    12. Green polymer chemistry: Telechelic poly(ethylene glycol)s via enzymatic catalysis (pages 3024–3028)

      Judit E. Puskas, Mustafa Y. Sen and Joseph R. Kasper

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22640

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      α-ω telechelic PEG-methacrylates and PEG-acetates were synthesized by enzymatic catalysis for the first time. Quantitative transesterification of vinyl acetate and vinyl methacrylate, respectively, with PEGs with narrow and broad molecular weight distribution in the 1000–10,000 g/mol range was achieved using Candida antarctica lipase B. 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and MALDI-TOF verified the structure of the functionalized polymers. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

      Candida antractica lipase B (Reproduced from ref.16, with permission from Wiley-VCH)

    13. Synthesis and characterization of amphiphilic fluorinated pentablock copolymers based on Pluronic F127 (pages 3029–3041)

      Jinlin He, Peihong Ni and Cuicui Liu

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22641

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      The synthesis and solution behavior of amphiphilic pentablock copolymers consisting of Pluronic F127 and poly(2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5-octafluoropentyl methacrylate) (POFPMA) is herein described. The experimental results indicate that these Pluronic F127-based block copolymers modified with fluorinated segments possess relatively high surface activity and low cloud points. Furthermore, these copolymers can self-assemble to form various micellar morphologies in aqueous solution.

    14. Germanes as efficient coinitiators in radical and cationic photopolymerizations (pages 3042–3047)

      Jacques Lalevée, Ali Dirani, Mohamad El-Roz, Xavier Allonas and Jean Pierre Fouassier

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22644

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      Germanes are presented as new coinitiators for both radical and cationic photopolymerization processes. For the free radical polymerization process, the new proposed structures are characterized by efficiencies similar or better than the reference amine.

    15. Fabrication of thermosensitive PCL-PNIPAAm-PCL triblock copolymeric micelles for drug delivery (pages 3048–3057)

      Cong Chang, Hua Wei, Chang-Yun Quan, Yong-Yong Li, Jia Liu, Zong-Chun Wang, Si-Xue Cheng, Xian-Zheng Zhang and Ren-Xi Zhuo

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22645

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      A series of well-defined PCL-PNIPAAm-PCL ABA triblock copolymers with different molecular weights were synthesized by the combination of ring opening polymerization and RAFT polymerization. TEM showed that the self-assembled micelles exhibited a well-defined spherical shape with diameter of around 100 nm. The LCSTs of them were around 36 °C in distilled water and 34 °C in PBS (pH = 6.8, I = 0.1). The prednisone acetate-loaded PCL-PNIPAAm-PCL micelles displayed thermosensitive controlled release behaviors. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    16. Simultaneous reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer and ring-opening polymerization (pages 3058–3067)

      Maude Le Hellaye, Catherine Lefay, Thomas P. Davis, Martina H. Stenzel and Christopher Barner-Kowollik

      Version of Record online: 27 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22647

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      Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-g-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PHEMA-g-PCL) graft copolymers have been synthesized for the first time in a simultaneous “one-step” synthetic procedure via the combination of RAFT and ROP processes. The formation of graft copolymers was investigated by the combination of SEC and in depth NMR analyses (1H, 13C, 2D 1H-1H and 2D 1H-13C) as well as by the hydrolysis of the PCL segments. A mechanistic insight of the simultaneous synthesis is also presented. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    17. Synthesis of poly(benzyl glutamate-b-styrene) rod-coil block copolymers by dual initiation in one pot (pages 3068–3077)

      Rutger J. I. Knoop, Gijs J. M. Habraken, Nicolas Gogibus, Simone Steig, Henning Menzel, Cor E. Koning and Andreas Heise

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22648

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      NCA polymerization of benzyl glutamate NCA is combined with nitroxide-mediated polymerization from a bifunctional initiator. PBLG macroinitiators with low polydispersity (1.1) and defined molecular weight were obtained and used as precursors for the controlled styrene polymerization. Block copolymers were obtained in high yields and good structural control. Both polymerizations were successfully conducted without intermediated macroinitiator isolation giving access to a metal free one-pot synthetic procedure. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    18. Synthesis and properties of novel Y-type nonlinear optical polyimides with high thermal stability of second harmonic generation (pages 3078–3087)

      Ga-Young Lee, Han-Na Jang and Ju-Yeon Lee

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22651

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      We synthesized novel Y-type polyimides 5-7 with 2,4-dioxybenzylidenemalononitrile groups as pendant NLO-chromophores, which are parts of polymer backbones. The resulting polymers 5-7 showed a thermal stability up to 320 °C in TGA thermograms with Tg values from DSC thermograms in the range 179–194 °C. The SHG coefficients (d33) of poled polymer films at the 1064 nm fundamental wavelength were around 5.56 × 10−9 esu. The dipole alignment exhibited exceptional high thermal stability even at 20 °C higher than Tg because of the partial main-chain character of the polymer structure.

    19. Synthesis of a new diglycidylic Meldrum acid derivative and study of the curing with lanthanide triflates as initiators (pages 3088–3097)

      Lidia González, Jurate Simokaitiene, Xavier Ramis, Josep Maria Salla, Ana Mantecón and Angels Serra

      Version of Record online: 27 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22655

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      A new epoxy resin derived from Meldrum acid was synthesized and structurally characterized. Ytterbium and lanthanum triflates were tested as cationic initiators to cure this resin and its mixtures with diglycidylether of bisphenol A in several proportions. The evolution of the curing was studied by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The kinetic parameters were calculated applying isoconversional procedures. Ytterbium triflate led to a quicker curing than lanthanum. The higher thermal degradability of the materials containing DGMA was confirmed by TGA.

    20. Surfactant-free synthesis of amphiphilic diblock copolymer in aqueous phase by a self-stability process (pages 3098–3107)

      Jing Ji, Lifeng Yan and Dinghai Xie

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22659

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      Amphiphilic polymeric particles with hydrophobic cores and hydrophilic shells were prepared via living radical emulsion polymerization of styrene using a water-soluble poly(acrylamide)-based macro-RAFT agent in aqueous solution in the absence of any surfactants. The RAFT controlled growth of hydrophobic block led to the formation of well-defined poly (acrylamide)-co-polystyrene amphiphilic copolymer, which was able to work as a polymeric stabilizer (self-stability) to help the copolymerization, and there forms a very stable latex at the end. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    21. Synthesis and self-assembly of helical polypeptide-random coil amphiphilic diblock copolymer (pages 3108–3119)

      Shiao-Wei Kuo, Hsin-Fang Lee, Chih-Feng Huang, Cheng-Jynn Huang and Feng-Chih Chang

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22632

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      Amphiphilic rod-coil PEOz-b-PBLG diblock copolymers display self-assembled aggregates in aqueous solution that is different from those in α-helicogenic solvents. In helicogenic solvents (in this case, toluene and benzyl alcohol), the PEOz-b-PBLG copolymers exhibited rod-coil chain properties, which result in a diverse array of aggregate morphologies (spheres, vesicles, ribbons, and tube nanostructures) and thermoreversible gelation behavior.

    22. New ladder-type conjugated polymer containing carbazole and fluorene units in backbone: Synthesis, optical, and electrochemistry properties (pages 3120–3127)

      Baoling Wang, Fangzhong Shen, Ping Lu, Shi Tang, Wu Zhang, Shiwei Pan, Meirong Liu, Linlin Liu, Song Qiu and Yuguang Ma

      Version of Record online: 27 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22642

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      In this article, we reported a new ladder-type poly (p-phenylene) (LPFC) containing dialkylcarbazole and dialkylfluorene units in its backbone. LPFC shows highly efficient emissions both in THF solution and in solid films, and a high HOMO level compared with the other blue light emission materials, which mean an easier hole injection from anodes. The single layer light-emitting device using LPFC as the active layer also lay out in this article.

    23. Alternating copolymerization of carbon dioxide and cyclohexene oxide catalyzed by silicon dioxide/Zn[BOND]CoIII double metal cyanide complex hybrid catalysts with a nanolamellar structure (pages 3128–3139)

      Xue-Ke Sun, Xing-Hong Zhang, Fei Liu, Shang Chen, Bin-Yang Du, Qi Wang, Zhi-Qiang Fan and Guo-Rong Qi

      Version of Record online: 27 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22666

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      Air-stable hybrid catalysts of a silicon dioxide (SiO2)/double metal cyanide complex with a nanolamellar structure were prepared by an in situ sol-gel method. A turnover number of 11444 and a turnover frequency of 3815 h−1 were obtained for copolymerization of CO2/CHO, with an apparent catalyst efficiency of 7.5 kg polymer/g ZHCC (∼24.0 kg polymer/g Zn) at 3.8 MPa and 100 °C.

  2. Rapid Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Articles
    3. Rapid Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Fine adjustment of network in polymer network liquid crystal film employing RAFT polymerization (pages 3140–3144)

      Jie He, Bin Yan, Binyu Yu, Shoulian Wang, Xiaoan Wang, Jian Wang, Yu Zeng, Rong Ran and Yinghan Wang

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22623

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      The pore of polymer network was influenced by the molecular weight of RAFT-PS, which caused a large improvement of electro-optical performance of PNLC.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Hydrogen-bond-assisted syndiotactic-specific radical polymerization of N,N-dimethylacrylamide in the presence of tartrates (pages 3145–3149)

      Tomohiro Hirano, Shuhei Masuda and Tsuneyuki Sato

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22643

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      The radical polymerizations of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAAm) at low temperatures in the presence of alcohol compounds were investigated. It was found that the addition of tartrates into the DMAAm polymerizations in toluene significantly induced the syndiotactic-specificity. In addition, both the yield and the molecular weights of the obtained polymers increased with the addition of tartrates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of syndiotactic-specific radical polymerization of DMAAm.

    3. You have free access to this content
      PEDOT:Poly(1-vinyl-3-ethylimidazolium) dispersions as alternative materials for optoelectronic devices (pages 3150–3154)

      Cristina Pozo-Gonzalo, Rebeca Marcilla, Maitane Salsamendi, David Mecerreyes, Jose A. Pomposo, Javier Rodríguez and Henk J. Bolink

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.22646

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      PEDOT formulations in acetonitrile have been synthesised using a phase transfer reaction involving two steps; being a polymerization in water and then a subsequent coagulation of the corresponding PEDOT by anion exchange. The strategy followed is to synthesise organic formulations using a less acidic stabilizer and fine-tuned hydrophobic properties which are suitable for using in OLEDs as a HTL (hole transport layer), leading to an interesting starting point for OLED applications. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

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