Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 47 Issue 4

15 February 2009

Volume 47, Issue 4

Pages 991–1235

  1. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Articles
    1. Optical properties of a novel fluorene-based thermally stable conjugated polymer containing pyridine and unsymmetric carbazole groups (pages 991–1002)

      Der-Jang Liaw, Kun-Li Wang, En-Tang Kang, Sidharam Pundlik Pujari, Min-Hung Chen, Ying-Chi Huang, Bo-Cheng Tao, Kueir-Rarn Lee and Juin-Yih Lai

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23127

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      A novel conjugated polymer was prepared via Suzuki coupling reaction from 9,9-didodecylfluorene-2,7-diboronic acid and a novel diiodo monomer containing heterocyclic pyridine and carbazole groups. The pristine polymer exhibited a maximum absorption band at 355 nm and an emission peak at 400 nm. However, the absorption peak and emission peak shifted to 420 nm and 540 nm, respectively, after protonated by hydrochloric acid. The polymer also exhibited excellent solubility, high thermal resistance, and electrochromic behavior under applied voltage, as well as write-once and read-many-times (WORM) memory effect with tristable states. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    2. Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives containing oxadiazole (pages 1003–1012)

      Shanpeng Wen, Jianing Pei, Yinhua Zhou, Lili Xue, Bin Xu, Yaowen Li and Wenjing Tian

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23158

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      A novel poly(p-phenylenevinylene) PPV-based copolymer (3C-OXD-PPV) with electron-deficient oxadiazole segments as the side chain has been successfully synthesized through the Gilch polymerization. The photovoltaic devices based on 3C-OXD-PPV and PCBM blend film exhibit Voc of 0.81V, Jsc of 4.93 mA/cm2, FF of 0.40, and PCE up to 1.60% which indicates that 3C-OXD-PPV is a promising polymer for photovoltaic application.

    3. Elucidation of high ring-opening polymerizability of methylated 1,6-anhydro glucose (pages 1013–1022)

      Dai Yoshida and Takashi Yoshida

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23178

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      1,6-Anhydro glucose was extracted from a wood tar that is a by-product of charcoal manufacture. After methylation of 1,6-anhydro glucose, the starting monomer, 1,6-anhydro-2,3,4-tri-O-methyl-β-D-glucopyranose (LGTME), was obtained in a good yield. Ring-opening polymerization of LGTME was carried out with BF3OEt2 as a catalyst under N2 atmosphere at 0 °C to give poly(LGTME) with equation image = 272 × 103 and 390 × 104 in the proportion of 4.5:1 in 75% yield. In addition, after the first stage polymerization, LGTME was added to the polymerization mixture. The molecular weight of the resulting polymer increased to 394 × 103, suggesting that poly(LGTME) might have stable propagating end which lives for a long time and has an ability of re-start for the ring-opening polymerization.

    4. Perfluorocarbon-loaded shell crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticles: Lessons regarding polymer mobility and self-assembly (pages 1023–1037)

      Andreas M. Nyström, Jeremy W. Bartels, Wenjun Du and Karen L. Wooley

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23184

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      Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization was employed to synthesize a set of copolymers of styrene (PS) and 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene (PPFS), as well as block copolymers with tert-butyl acrylate (PtBA)-b-PS-co-PPFS, having good control over molecular weight and polydispersity (<1.2). These block copolymers were converted to amphiphilic block copolymers, PAA-b-(PS-co-PPFS). Solution-state assembly and intramicellar crosslinking afforded shell crosslinked knedel-like (SCK) block copolymer micellar nanoparticles. These fluorinated nanoparticles were studied as potential magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents based on the 19F-nuclei; however, it was found that restricted mobility of the fluorinated core domain prohibited 19F NMR spectroscopy. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    5. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated-fluorinated, hydrophilic-hydrophobic multiblock copolymers for proton exchange membranes (pages 1038–1051)

      Xiang Yu, Abhishek Roy, Stuart Dunn, Anand S. Badami, Juan Yang, Alec S. Good and James E. McGrath

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23194

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      Ion containing multiblock copolymer comprising hydrophobic and hydrophilic blocks have shown significant promise as proton exchange membranes. A series of multiblock copolymers, composed of alternating segments of fully disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) and highly fluorinated poly(arylene ether sulfone), were synthesized from hydrophilic and hydrophobic telechelic oligomers having a variation of molecular weights. The hydrophilic blocks were based on the nucleophilic step polymerization of 3,3′-disulfonated, 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone with an excess 4,4′-biphenol to afford phenoxide endgroups. The hydrophobic (fluorinated) blocks were largely based on decafluoro biphenyl (excess) and various bisphenols.

    6. Redox, ionic strength, and pH sensitive supramolecular polymer assemblies (pages 1052–1060)

      Suhrit Ghosh, Volkan Yesilyurt, Elamprakash N. Savariar, Katharine Irvin and S. Thayumanavan

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23204

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      Supramolecular complex of a cationic surfactant and oppositely charged disulfide containing polyelectrolyte was found to form micelle type aggregates at concentration much lower than the critical aggregate concentration (CAC) of the surfactant itself. We show that this difference can be utilized to generate stimulus-sensitive disassembly of these structures. This can be achieved either by converting the polyelectrolyte counterions to monovalent counterions in response to a stimulus or by simply weakening the interaction between the polymer and the surfactant in the presence of a stimulus. We have utilized three different stimuli to demonstrate these possibilities. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    7. Ruthenium-incorporated, metathesis-active polyacetylene (pages 1061–1072)

      Danielle E. Schuehler Sherwood, Joseph E. Williams and Michael B. Sponsler

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23213

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      Large amounts of a ruthenium complex have been incorporated into polyacetylene by using two different methods: the reaction of a Grubbs olefin metathesis catalyst with freshly polymerized polyacetylene and the polymerization of acetylene with a highly concentrated solution of the same catalyst. Differences between the physical, chemical, and electrical properties of the two materials are attributable to differences in the morphologies, which are readily apparent from the SEM images. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    8. Thermally degradable maleimides for reworkable adhesives (pages 1073–1084)

      Xinnan Zhang, Gang-Chi Chen, Andrew Collins, Solomon Jacobson, Paul Morganelli, Yadunandan L. Dar and Osama M. Musa

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23217

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      Thermally degradable maleimides were synthesized from a carboxylic acid containing maleimide functionality and a multifunctional vinyl ether. The maleimides can be efficiently polymerized into thermosetting structures under radical condition. Upon heating to 225 °C, the acetal ester linkages in the crosslinked networks degraded, leading to breakage of the crosslinking structures. The ability to polymerize into thermosetting structures and degrade upon further heating allows these novel materials to be used in applications such as reworkable adhesives. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    9. Relevance of a prereaction for the in situ NMP of styrene using the C-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone/2,2′-azobis(isobutyronitrile) pair (pages 1085–1097)

      Valérie Sciannamea, Jean-Marie Catala, Robert Jerome, Christine Jérôme and Christophe Detrembleur

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23220

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      There are two main ways for the in situ nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization of styrene using C-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) as the nitroxide precursor and 2,2′-azobis (isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as the initiator. One approach consists in adding PBN to the radical polymerization of styrene, whereas the other one uses a prereaction between the nitrone and the free radical initiator before the addition of the monomer and to the polymerization. In this article, ESR and kinetics studies allow us to compare both ways of carrying out the polymerization to find the best route for an optimal control.

    10. The kinetics of enhanced spin capturing polymerization: Influence of the nitrone structure (pages 1098–1107)

      Edgar H. H. Wong, Martina H. Stenzel, Thomas Junkers and Christopher Barner-Kowollik

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23221

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      The controlled polymerization method enhanced spin capturing polymerization (ESCP) holds potential as an attractive synthetic tool because the generated polymers contain a mid chain functionality. Herein, the influence of the structures of the nitrone mediating agents on the rate coefficient of the addition of propagating chains to the nitrones, kad,macro (which is a key parameter in an ESCP process) is investigated. It is demonstrated that nitrones with less bulky substituents on the nitrogen atom have higher kad,macro values, whereas the introduction of a second functionality on the nitrones has less influence. This work allows for a better understanding of the structure–reactivity correlation of nitrones in ESCP. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    11. Optimized water-based ATRP of an anionic monomer: Comprehension and properties characterization (pages 1108–1119)

      Rosica Mincheva, Dilyana Paneva, Laetitia Mespouille, Nevena Manolova, Iliya Rashkov and Philippe Dubois

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23222

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      The role of factors such as the ligand nature and the medium pH on the aqueous ATRP of sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonate as initiated by α-methoxy-ω-(2-methylbromoisobutyrate) poly(ethylene oxide)s was evaluated. Alkaline hydrolysis of the macroinitiator ester group was evidenced by NMR and GPC. Monomodal block copolymers were obtained at pH 7.5 using CuBr · 2Me6-TREN as a catalytic complex. Viscosity investigations showed highly extended conformation of PAMPSNa-block in aqueous solutions. Coordination of Na+ from PAMPSNa-block by the oxygen atoms in PEO chain was evidenced by TGA. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is now available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    12. Core-shell nanoparticles with hyperbranched poly(arylene-oxindole) interiors (pages 1120–1135)

      Agnieszka Kowalczuk, Annelies Vandendriessche, Barbara Trzebicka, Barbara Mendrek, Urszula Szeluga, Grzegorz Cholewiński, Mario Smet, Andrzej Dworak and Wim Dehaen

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23224

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      The synthesis and properties of novel star-shaped nanoparticles consisting of a new type of hyperbranched poly(arylene-oxindole) core and poly(tert-butyl acrylate) arms of different length are investigated. ATRP of tert-butyl acrylate initiated by 2-bromopropionyl functional groups of poly(arylene oxindole) was used for the synthesis of stars. The polymers were characterized by GPC with triple detection method. Light scattering experiments were performed to provide information about the size of these polymers in solution. The prepared star copolymers represent spherical nanoparticles, which after subsequent hydrolysis of tert-butyl acrylate segments might act as pH-sensitive transport and delivery devices of active species. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    13. Facile and quick synthesis of poly(N-methylolacrylamide)/polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane graft copolymer hybrids via frontal polymerization (pages 1136–1147)

      Yuan Fang, Li Chen and Su Chen

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23201

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      The synthesis of well-defined POSS-based polymeric materials with and without solvent via frontal polymerization has been carried out. This article describes an approach to quickly synthesize POSS-based polymeric materials, combining the morphology and thermal properties. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    14. Novel thermoplastic elastomers based on arborescent (dendritic) polyisobutylene with short copolymer end sequences (pages 1148–1158)

      Judit E. Puskas, Lucas M. Dos Santos, Gabor Kaszas and Kevin Kulbaba

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23218

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      A new class of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) composed of a high molecular weight dendritic (arborescent) polyisobutylene (arbPIB) core with short copolymer end sequences is presented in this article. The hydrodynamic radii of arbPIBs were measured by viscometry and quasi-elastic light scattering, and good agreement between the two methods is demonstrated for the first time in this article. We have discovered that regardless of the Tg of the copolymer end blocks, the new block copolymers exhibited TPE properties, which were improved by carbon black and silica fillers to a great extent. These novel PIB-based TPEs are promising new biomaterials.

    15. A new route to acrylate oils: Crosslinking and properties of acrylate triglycerides from high oleic sunflower oil (pages 1159–1167)

      L. Montero de Espinosa, J. C. Ronda, M. Galià and V. Cádiz

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23225

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      Triglycerides with acrylate functionality were prepared from a new route that involves the singlet oxygen photooxygenation of high oleic sunflower oil and further reduction of the resulting hydroperoxide derivatives to a mixture of secondary allylic alcohols. These unsaturated alcohols can be further reduced to saturated alcohols. These two new hydroxyl- containing triglycerides were esterified using acryloyl chloride to introduce acrylate functionalities and radically crosslinked in presence of different amounts of pentaerythritol tetraacrylate. The crosslinking reactions were followed by FTIR spectroscopy and the thermal properties of the final materials were evaluated. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    16. Butylene copolyesters based on aldaric and terephthalic acids. Synthesis and characterization (pages 1168–1177)

      Francisca Zamora, Khalid Hakkou, Abdelillah Alla, Manuel Rivas, Antxón Martínez De Ilarduya, Sebastián Muñoz-Guerra and Juan A. Galbis

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23228

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      The synthesis, characterization, and some properties of new copolyesters analogous to poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), based on L-arabinaric and galactaric acids, are described. These copolyesters are stable at over 320 °C. All the copolyesters display a noticeable hydrophilicity and are soluble upon warning in a number of solvents of varying nature. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    17. pH and ionic strength responsive polyelectrolyte block copolymer micelles prepared by ring opening metathesis polymerization (pages 1178–1191)

      Kurt Stubenrauch, Ilja Voets, Gerhard Fritz-Popovski and Gregor Trimmel

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23229

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      Polyelectrolyte block copolymers were prepared by ring opening metathesis polymerization. The dimensions of micelles formed in aqueous solutions strongly depend on the pH-values and the salt concentration. In basic conditions, the polyelectrolyte shell is 2.6-fold thicker than in acidic conditions due to the deprotonation of the acidic groups. In this state (high pH value), the micelles also exhibit responsive behavior to ionic strength. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    18. Syndiotactic-specific radical polymerization of N,N-dimethylacrylamide in the presence of tartrates: A proposed mechanism for the polymerization (pages 1192–1203)

      Tomohiro Hirano, Shuhei Masuda, Shou Nasu, Koichi Ute and Tsuneyuki Sato

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23226

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      Radical polymerization of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAAm) in the presence of tartrates in toluene at low temperatures was investigated. Syndiotactic polymers were obtained in the presence of tartrates, whereas isotactic polymers were obtained in the absence of tartrates. NMR analysis suggested that DMAAm and tartrates formed a 1:1 complex through double hydrogen bonding. A mechanism of the syndiotactic-specific radical polymerization of DMAAm is proposed. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    19. Controlled synthesis of trifluoropropylmethylsiloxane–dimethylsiloxane gradient copolymers by anionic ROP of cyclotrisiloxanes (pages 1204–1216)

      Marek Cypryk, BogumiŁa Delczyk, Azhar Juhari and Kaloian Koynov

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23227

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      The reactivity ratios, rD3 = 0.10, rF3 = 51.8, were estimated from kinetic studies of simultaneous copolymerization of 2,4,6-tris(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)-2,4,6-trimethylcyclotrisiloxane (F3) with hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3) in THF using BuLi as initiator. These reactivity ratios may be used to predict the copolymer composition. As a result of so much different reactivities, simultaneous polymerization leads to copolymers of tapered blocky structure containing a narrow intermediate fragment with gradient distribution of units. DSC, DMA, and SAXS analysis of the resulted copolymers are presented.

    20. Spontaneous formation of narrowly-distributed self-assembly from polyamidoamine dendron-poly(L-lysine) block copolymers through helix-coil transition of poly(L-lysine) block (pages 1217–1223)

      Atsushi Harada, Kenichi Nakanishi, Shinichi Ichimura, Chie Kojima and Kenji Kono

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23231

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      Block copolymers composed of a dendritic block and helical polypeptide block can take a defined three-dimensional structure like a protein molecule and spontaneously form self-assemblies with an extremely narrow size distribution comparable with natural supramolecular association through converging to a thermodynamically stable assembling state. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    21. Synthesis and self-organization properties of copolyurethanes based on perylenediimide and naphthalenediimide units (pages 1224–1235)

      B. Jancy and S. K. Asha

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23233

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      In this study, new soluble copolyurethanes containing perylenediimide or naphthalenediimide units have been synthesized and characterized, which can undergo self-organization via hydrogen bonding interactions of the urethane linkage at low aromatic diimide incorporation and via π-π stacking interactions at high diimide incorporation.

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