Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 47 Issue 9

1 May 2009

Volume 47, Issue 9

Pages 2219–2461

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      Monolithic biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds for tissue engineering (pages 2219–2227)

      Michael R. Buchmeiser

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23328

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      The development of polymeric monolithic 3D scaffolds for use in adipose and osseous tissue engineering is presented. The new materials' properties, advantages, and drawbacks are discussed within the context of the existing materials and processing techniques. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

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    1. Synthesis and characterization of L-leucine containing chiral vinyl monomer and its polymer, poly(2-(methacryloyloxyamino)-4-methyl pentanoic acid) (pages 2228–2242)

      Dibyendu S. Bag, Dhiraj Dutta, T. C. Shami and K. U. Bhasker Rao

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23292

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      The conformation of chiral polymer, poly(2-(Methacryloyl-oxyamino)-4-methyl pentanoic acid) is sensitive to the external stimuli. Ordered chain conformation is observed due to H-bonding in slightly acidic medium. However, in alkaline medium such ordered conformation is destroyed due to the ionization of carboxylic acid group leading to random coil structures. The polymer exhibits swelling-deswelling characteristics in aqueous and acidic medium due to the absorption of solvent inside the space caused by the intra- and inter-chain H-bonding of the polymeric chains and chain segments. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    2. Anthracene- and thiophene-containing MEH-PPE-PPVs: Synthesis and study of the effect of the aromatic ring position on the photophysical and electrochemical properties (pages 2243–2261)

      Andreas Wild, Daniel A. M. Egbe, Eckhard Birckner, Vera Cimrová, Reinhard Baumann, Ulrich-Walter Grummt and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23304

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      Anthracene-containing PPE-PPV copolymers reveal position dependent optical properties, and thus enable bandgap tuning. A constant bathochromic shift of 50 nm was observed going from P4a = 453 nm, Emath image = 2.22 eV), where anthracene is surrounded by two double bonds, to P5a = 506 nm, Emath image = 2.05 eV), where anthracene is at the bridge between a triple bond and a double bond, as well as from P5 to P6a = 575 nm, Emath image = 1.90 eV), where anthracene is surrounded by two triple bonds. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    3. Engineering polymer surfaces with variable chemistry and topography (pages 2262–2271)

      Alexandra Muñoz-Bonilla, Emmanuel Ibarboure, Eric Papon and Juan Rodriguez-Hernandez

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23305

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      We describe the preparation of surfaces with controlled surface chemistry and topology combining both surface segregation of block copolymers and “breath figures” formation. The holes, enriched in triblock copolymer, exhibit variable chemical composition and topography depending on the environmental conditions. The surface functionality could be reversibly modulated: whereas under humid conditions the PPEGMA hydrophilic block reorients towards the surface, annealing to dry air directs the PS5F fluorinated block to the interface. Equally, surfaces annealed to humid air changed their topography from holes to islands depending on the extent of swelling of the PPEGMA block. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    4. Ethylene polymerization behavior of Cr(III)-containing montmorillonite: Influence of chromium compounds (pages 2272–2280)

      Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki Ishihama, Eiji Isobe and Toshihiko Sugano

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23307

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      Montmorillonite was treated with Cr(NO3)3, Cr(acetate)3, and Cr(acac)3 to give three ethylene polymerization catalyst precursors Cr-MMT-1, Cr-MMT-2, and Cr-MMT-3, respectively. The molecular weight distribution pattern of the polyethylene generated with the catalysts in a combination with Et3Al showed nearly the same shape. However, only the Cr-MMT-1 combination exhibited sufficient activity. Elemental analysis, XRD, and TEM measurements suggested that chromium occupied the interlayer section in this precursor and mostly the outer surface region for the other two catalysts. Aluminosilicate was also examined as a supporting solid using the same three sources of chromium. As a result all three were inferior to Cr-MMT-1 in terms of activity and the molecular weight distributions of the polyethylene differed to those of the montmorillonite combination. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    5. Heterogeneous polymerization with polyaspartate macromonomer having vinyl pendant groups. II. Control of particle diameter and diameter distribution in dispersion copolymerization (pages 2281–2288)

      Keisuke Tomita and Tsutomu Ono

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23309

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      Effects of polymerization parameters on diameter and diameter distribution of particles prepared by dispersion copolymerization of styrene with sodium polyaspartate (PAspNa) macromonomer in a mixture of ethanol and water were investigated. Water contents in the solvent strongly affected the particle diameter. Variation of the water contents from 20 to 80 vol % controls the resultant particle diameter from 0.066 to 0.47 μm. Moreover, we succeeded in producing monodisperse particles by shortening of decomposition time of initiator.

    6. Polybenzimidazoles tethered with N-phenyl 1,2,4-triazole units as polymer electrolytes for fuel cells (pages 2289–2303)

      R. A. Potrekar, M. P. Kulkarni, R. A. Kulkarni and S. P. Vernekar

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23310

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      We report the superior analogues of polybenzimidazoles having N-phenyl 1,2,4-triazole moiety in the main chain for proton exchange membranes fuel cell applications. This polybenzimidazoles have good thermal stability, excellent chemical stability, and good solubility in many polar aprotic solvents with good proton conductivity after doped in phosphoric acid.

    7. Alternatively linking fullerene and conjugated polymers (pages 2304–2317)

      Roger C. Hiorns, Pierre Iratçabal, Didier Bégué, Abdel Khoukh, Rémi De Bettignies, Jocelyne Leroy, Muriel Firon, Carole Sentein, Hervé Martinez, Hugues Preud'homme and Christine Dagron-Lartigau

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23311

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      Two different routes to alternating polymers based on fullerene and poly(3-hexylthiophene) are explored. Both cases show controlled bis-additions to the fullerene sphere and retention of individual electronic band structures. However, the simple variation in the linking group demonstrates strong effects on the resulting copolymer morphologies. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    8. Ring-opening polymerization of lactides initiated by magnesium and zinc complexes based on NNO-tridentate ketiminate ligands: Activity and stereoselectivity studies (pages 2318–2329)

      Yong Huang, Wen-Chou Hung, Ming-Yuan Liao, Tsung-En Tsai, Ya-Liu Peng and Chu-Chieh Lin

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23314

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      Four unsymmetric metal benzylalkoxides, [L2M2(μ-OBn)2] (M = Mg or Zn), based on NNO-tridentate ketiminate ligands have been synthesized. Their activities and stereoselectivities toward the ring-opening polymerization of lactides will be presented.

    9. Highly stable electrochromic polyamides based on N,N-bis(4-aminophenyl)-N′,N′-bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,4-phenylenediamine (pages 2330–2343)

      Sheng-Huei Hsiao, Guey-Sheng Liou and Hui-Min Wang

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23323

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      A new class of electroactive polyamides with di-tert-butyl-substituted N,N,N′,N′-tetraphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (TPPA) units were prepared via the direct phosphorylation polyamidation reactions of the newly synthesized diamine monomer, N,N-bis(4-aminophenyl)-N′,N′-bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,4-phenylenediamine, with various aromatic and aliphatic dicarboxylic acids. Introduction of bulky tert-butyl substituents at the para-positions of pendent phenyl rings of the TPPA unit not only stabilizes arylaminium cation radicals and dications but also leads to good solubility and film-forming properties of the polyamides. After >500 cyclic switches, the polymer films still exhibited excellent redox stability. The oxidation process was accompanied by coloration changes from a colorless or very slight yellow neutral state to a green semi-oxidized state and a blue fully oxidized state. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    10. Three-arm star ring opening metathesis polymers via alkyne-azide click reaction (pages 2344–2351)

      Aydan Dag, Hakan Durmaz, Okan Sirkecioglu, Gurkan Hizal and Umit Tunca

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23324

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      The click chemistry strategy is successfully applied for the preparation of 3-arm star (A3) ring opening metathesis polymers. A well-defined monoazide end-functionalized poly-(N-ethyl oxanorbornene) and a poly(N-butyl oxanorbornene) obtained via ring opening metathesis polymerization using first generation Grubbs' catalyst are simply clicked with the tris-alkyne core affording the synthesis of target star polymers. The obtained star polymers are characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The deconvolution analyses of GPC traces reveal that the click reaction efficiency for the star formation strongly depends on the chemical nature and the molecular weight of ROM polymers.

    11. Modulated molecular recognition by a temperature-sensitive molecularly-imprinted polymer (pages 2352–2360)

      Songjun Li, Srikanth Pilla and Shaoqin Gong

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23325

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      A temperature-sensitive adenine-imprinted polymer, MIP-S, was prepared using PNIPA as the thermosensitive element. Below the thermal transition temperature (such as 20 °C), the MIP-S exhibited a highly specific recognition for the imprint species. However, the MIP-S did not show any significant resolution for the template and its analogue above the transition temperature (such as 40 °C). Such temperature-regulated recognition is comparable to a switch-on and switch-off process, thereby making tunable molecular recognition possible.

    12. Preparation and characterization of nematic polyazomethine/single-walled carbon nanotube composites prepared by in situ polymerization (pages 2361–2372)

      Esperanza Lafuente, Milagros Piñol, María Teresa Martínez, Edgar Muñoz, Luis Oriol and José Luis Serrano

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23326

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      Nematic polyazomethine-single-walled carbon nanotubes composites have been prepared by in situ polymerization in presence of chemically modified carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes have been covalently bonded to the polymeric chain in an attempt to increase dispersion and compatibility with the polymeric matrix. Well-oriented fibers have been extruded from the liquid crystal state, which show improved mechanical properties over the pure polymer. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.].

    13. Pegylated thermally responsive block copolymer micelles and nanogels via in situ RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization (pages 2373–2390)

      Jutta Rieger, Chloé Grazon, Bernadette Charleux, David Alaimo and Christine Jérôme

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23329

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      Pegylated, thermoresponsive, core-shell nanogels of poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) were successfully prepared thanks to a simple RAFT-mediated aqueous dispersion polymerization process using double hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) block copolymers as reversible chain transfer agents and stabilizers. The stability and size of the particles were found to depend strongly on the chain length of the macroRAFT agent, on the concentration of both the monomer and crosslinker, and on the process (one step or two steps). [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    14. Linear polyurethanes made from naturally occurring tartaric acid (pages 2391–2407)

      Romina Marín, Antxon Martínez de Ilarduya and Sebastián Muñoz-Guerra

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23330

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      Functionalized linear polyurethanes containing carboxylate side-groups were prepared from naturally occurring tartaric acid and aliphatic and aromatic diisocyanates. The benzyl derivatives could be partially hydrogenolyzed to produce polyurethanes bearing free carboxyl side-groups. All the tartaric-derived polyurethanes displayed enhanced sensitivity to hydrolysis, and the carboxylic-containing ones were degraded in water under physiological conditions.

    15. Synthesis and characterization of optically active helical vinyl polymers via free radical polymerization (pages 2408–2421)

      Junge Zhi, Yan Guan, Jiaxi Cui, Anhua Liu, Zhiguo Zhu, Xinhua Wan and Qifeng Zhou

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23331

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      Three pairs of enantiomeric helical polymers R-(−)-P-C4/S-(+)-P-C4, R-(−)-P-C8/S-(+)-P-C8, and L-(−)-P-cC10/D-(+)-P-cC10 were prepared via free-radical polymerization, which exhibited optical rotations as large as fourfold those of the corresponding monomers. The polymers with linear alkyl tails in the side p-terphenyl groups formed irreversibly columnar nematic phases in melt although the corresponding monomers were not liquid crystalline. Whereas, the polymers with cyclic tails developed no mesophase. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

    16. Synthesis and characterization of photocrosslinked poly(ε-caprolactone)s showing shape-memory properties (pages 2422–2433)

      Minoru Nagata and Yu Yamamoto

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23333

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      A novel photosensitive biodegradable polyester with a pendent coumarin group was prepared by solution polycondensation of 7-(3,5-dicarboxyphenoxy) carbonylmethoxycoumarin dichloride and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) diols with molecular weights of 1250, 3000, and 10,000 g/mol; subsequently, UV irradiated to form an elastic crosslinked material. The crosslinked films showed excellent shape-memory properties, where the shape fixity ratio and the shape recovery ratio were 88–100% for tensile strain of 100–500%; after the deformation, the films recovered their permanent shapes instantaneously. The biodegradable photocrosslinked PCLs with good shape-memory properties are promising for many new applications, particularly in biomedical fields.

    17. Synthesis and spectroscopic investigation of π-conjugated (E)-enyne polycarbazole with different organo-metallic catalysts from 3,6-diethynyl-9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole (pages 2434–2442)

      In Kyu Moon, Masuki Kawamoto and Tatsuo Wada

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23336

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      The present article describes the synthesis and characterization of a new (E)-rich-enyne π-conjugated polymer containing a carbazole. Poly[N-(2-ethylhexyl)-3,6-carbazolyleneethynylene-(E)-vinylene] exhibited the absorption maximum at 363 nm and the photoluminescence spectrum peaked at 488 nm.

    18. High Tg and high organosolubility of novel unsymmetric polyimides (pages 2443–2452)

      Yaw-Terng Chern, Jeng-Yu Tsai and Jane-Jen Wang

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23337

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      A series of new polyimides (PIs) containing di-tert-butyl side groups were synthesized via a polycondensation of 1-(4-aminophenoxy)-4-(4-amino-2-methylphenyl)-2,6-di-tert-butylbenzene (3) with various aromatic tetracarboxylic dianhydrides. The novel unsymmetric PIs exhibited a low dielectric constant (2.78–3.02), low moisture absorption (0.53–1.35%), excellent solubility, and high glass transition temperature (308–450 °C). The very high Tg (450 °C) of the polyimide derived from the new diamine and the very rigid naphthalene-1,4,5,8-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA) was soluble in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, chloroform, m-cresol, and cyclohexanone.

    19. Poly(arylene sulfide)s by nucleophilic aromatic substitution polymerization of 2,7-difluorothianthrene (pages 2453–2461)

      Maxwell J. Robb and Daniel M. Knauss

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.23341

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      Poly(thianthrene phenylene sulfide)s and poly(thianthrene sulfide) have been prepared by nucleophilic aromatic substitution polymerization of the activated monomer 2,7-difluorothianthrene with 4,4′-thiobisbenzenethiol and sodium sulfide, respectively. The polymers produced exhibit 5% weight loss values approaching 500 °C in inert and air atmospheres, and glass transition temperatures ranging from 149 to 210 °C. High molecular weight poly(thianthrene phenylene sulfide) synthesized with a number average molecular weight of 22,100 g/mol exhibits good optical transparency and a high refractive index value of 1.692 at a wavelength of 633 nm. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

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