Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 49 Issue 14

15 July 2011

Volume 49, Issue 14

Pages 2997–3239

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    1. Polymer electrolyte membrane based on poly(ether sulfone) containing binaphthyl units with pendant perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (pages 2997–3003)

      Taijiro Nakagawa, Kazuhiro Nakabayashi, Tomoya Higashihara and Mitsuru Ueda

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24722

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      A novel poly(ether sulfone)-containing binaphthyl units with pendant perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (BNSH-PSA) was developed for a polymer electrolyte membrane. The BNSH-PSA membrane showed high proton conductivity comparable to the Nafion 117 membrane in the range of 30–95% RH due to the high acidity of the perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids.

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    1. Surface-Grafted conjugated polymers for hybrid cellulose materials (pages 3004–3013)

      Joseph J. Peterson, Markus Willgert, Susanne Hansson, Eva Malmström and Kenneth R. Carter

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24733

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      Conjugated polymers were grafted onto cellulose substrates in an effort to create a general method for the synthesis of conjugated polymer/cellulose hybrid materials. In this report, we describe the grafting of poly(fluorene), poly(fluorenevinylene), and a poly(fluorene-ethynylene-phenylene) onto modified cellulose paper substrates utilizing Suzuki (P1), Heck (P2), and Sonogashira-type (P3) polymerizations.

    2. Effect of monomer water solubility on cationic microemulsion polymerization of three components (water, surfactant, and monomer) (pages 3014–3019)

      Jesús Arellano, Jorge Flores, Fabio Zuluaga, Eduardo Mendizábal and Issa Katime

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24734

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      Conversion as a function of time for the microemulsion polymerization at 60 °C, stabilized by the cationic surfactant DTAB, for the three monomers with different water solubilities, methyl acrylate (5.2 g/100 g at 25 °C), ethyl acrylate (1.5 g/100 g at 25 °C), and n-butyl acrylate (0.2 g/100 g at 25 °C), initiated with V-50 (0.5 wt % with respect to the monomer). Here, it can be observed that the polymerizations were fast, and that as the monomer water solubility decreased (substituent group size increased), higher conversions were obtained at a given time.

    3. Synthesis of poly(naphthalenecarboxamide)s with low polydispersity by chain-growth condensation polymerization (pages 3020–3029)

      Koichiro Mikami, Hiroaki Daikuhara, Jyunya Kasama, Akihiro Yokoyama and Tsutomu Yokozawa

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24737

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      Condensation polymerization of 6-amino-2-naphthoic acid esters with various side chains was investigated as an extension of chain-growth condensation polymerization (CGCP), which is controlled by resonance effects between the nucleophilic and electrophilic sites of the monomers, and has previously been applied to only benzene ring-containing monomers. In the polymerization of a naphthalene-based monomer at low feed ratio, the step-growth polymerization was suppressed, and CGCP proceeded.

    4. Synthesis of low grafting density molecular brush from a poly(N-alkyl urea peptoid) backbone (pages 3030–3037)

      Xiaoping Chen and Neil Ayres

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24739

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      Synthesis of a molecular brush was accomplished by combining step-growth polymerization and reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. A step-growth process was used to prepare a linear poly(N-alkyl urea peptoid) by reacting the diamine-functionalized N-alkyl urea peptoid sixmer with a diisocyanate. RAFT chain transfer agents were coupled to the poly(N-alkyl urea peptoid) backbone through a copper-catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition reaction. The afforded macro-RAFT agent was used to sequentially polymerize styrene and tert-butyl acrylate block copolymers from the poly(N-alkyl urea peptoid) backbone. The tert-butyl groups were removed using dilute trifluoroacetic acid affording hydrophilic polyacrylic acid segments.

    5. Polyurea microcapsules: Surface modification and capsule size control (pages 3038–3047)

      Jian Li, M. A. Jafar Mazumder, Harald D. H. Stöver, Adam P. Hitchcock and Ian M. Shirley

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24740

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      Controlling microcapsule surface chemistry and size distribution are two important aspects in microcapsule studies that are closely related to many microcapsule properties. This article details the development of a new postmodification method for functionalizing polyurea microcapsule surfaces using reactive polyelectrolytes via both electrostatic and covalent interactions. In the meantime, a simple T-junction microfluidic device based on commercial parts is presented that is capable of producing monodisperse emulsions and narrowdisperse microcapsules, featuring simplicity and robustness.

    6. Synthesis, characterization, and large two-photon absorption cross-sections of solid red-emitting 1,4-diketo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo [3,4-c]pyrrole/3,6-carbazole/terfluorene copolymers (pages 3048–3057)

      Baoliang Zhang, Haichang Zhang, Xiaojing Li, Wen Li, Pingping Sun and Wenjun Yang

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24741

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      Novel 1,4-diketo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DPP)/3,6-carbazole (Cz)/terfluorene (TF) copolymers have been synthesized and characterized. The copolymers show large two-photon absorption cross-sections (530–850 GM per repeating unit) and solid red emitting (617–631 nm). Cz–TF–Cz segment is high one-photon active but low TPA active, and Cz–DPP–Cz unit is low one-photon active but high TPA active.

    7. Structure–reactivity relationships of alkyl α-hydroxymethacrylate derivatives (pages 3058–3068)

      Ozlem Karahan, Duygu Avci and Vİktorya Avİyente

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24743

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      A series of alkyl α-hydroxymethacrylate (RHMA) derivatives with various secondary functionalities (ether, ester, carbonate and carbamate) and terminal groups (alkyl, cyano, oxetane, cyclic carbonate, phenyl and morpholine) were synthesized and to investigate the effect of intermolecular interactions, H-bonding, π-π interactions and dipole moment on monomer reactivity.

    8. Poly-2-oxazoline-derived polyurethanes: A versatile synthetic approach to renewable polyurethane thermosets (pages 3069–3079)

      Enrique Del Rio, Gerard Lligadas, Juan Carlos Ronda, Marina Galià and Virginia Cádiz

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24744

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      Saturated and unsaturated aliphatic oxazolines based on renewable fatty acids are copolymerized in different proportions by cationic ring-opening polymerization to obtain a series of random linear copolymers with tailored molecular weight and double bond functionality in the side chains. Thiol-ene addition of 2-mercaptoethanol was used to produce polyoxazoline–polyols that were reacted with methylene-bis(phenylisocyanate) to yield a palette of amorphous and semicrystalline polyurethane networks with modulated properties.

    9. Statistical copolymers of methyl methacrylate and 2-methacryloyloxyethyl ferrocenecarboxylate: Monomer reactivity ratios, thermal and electrochemical properties (pages 3080–3089)

      Margarita Droulia, Athina Anastasaki, Alexandros Rokotas, Marinos Pitsikalis and Patrina Paraskevopoulou

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24745

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      Statistical copolymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) with 2-methacryloyloxyethyl ferrocenecarboxylate (MAEFC) were prepared by free radical polymerization. The reactivity ratios of the monomers were estimated using linear graphical methods. The thermal and electrochemical properties were studied.

    10. Poly[(sodium sulfamate/carboxylate)isoprene-b-2-vinyl pyridine] block polyampholytes: Synthesis and self-assembly in aqueous media (pages 3090–3098)

      Christos Mantzaridis and Stergios Pispas

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24746

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      Poly[(sodium sulfamate/carboxylate) isoprene-b-2-vinyl pyridine] block polyampholytes (SCPI-P2VP) were synthesized by utilization of anionic polymerization and post polymerization functionalization reactions. The block polyampholytes form micellar structures with P2VP cores and SCPI coronas at pH > 6, whereas more compact nanoparticles are formed at pH < 4 from the complexation of positively charged P2VP and SCPI, stabilized by excess negative charges of uncomplexed SCI segments.

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    1. Bipolar copoly(aryl ether) containing distyrylbenzene, triphenylamine, and 1,2,4-triazole moieties: Synthesis and optoelectronic properties (pages 3099–3108)

      Chia-Shing Wu, Shawn-Lin Lee and Yun Chen

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24747

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      Copoly(aryl ether) P1 consisting of alternate emitting distyrylbenzene and bipolar moiety (directly linked electron-transporting aromatic 1,2,4-triazole and hole-transporting triphenylamine) was synthesized to promote charges injection and transport. Its polymer light-emitting diode emission efficiency was further enhanced by blending with poly(9,9-dihexylfluorene) (PF). The maximum luminance and maximum luminance efficiency were significantly raised to 3260 cd/m2 and 1.08 cd/A (PF/P1 = 20/0.8 w/w), respectively, from 380 cd/m2 and 0.009 cd/A of P1-based device.

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    1. Synthesis and properties of novel triptycene-based polyimides (pages 3109–3120)

      Sheng-Huei Hsiao, Hui-Min Wang, Wen-Jeng Chen, Tzong-Ming Lee and Chyi-Ming Leu

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24748

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      Novel triptycene-based polyimides were prepared from the conventional two-step poly condensation reactions of 1,4-bis(4-aminophenoxy)triptycene and 1,4-bis(4-amino-2- trifluoromethylphenoxy)triptycene, respectively, with six commercially available aromatic tetracarboxylic dianhydrides. All the resulting polyimides could afford flexible and strong films with good mechanical properties. In comparison with the nonfluorinated analogs, the trifluoromethyl-substituted polyimides showed enhanced solubility, reduced dielectric constant, and lowered color intensity while retaining high Tg values and good thermal stability. One of the fluorinated polyimides derived from the fluorine-containing diamine with 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA) could be cast into a highly transparent and essentially colorless film.

    2. A facile pathway for the fast synthesis of colloidal crystal-loaded hydrogels via frontal polymerization (pages 3121–3128)

      Si-Si Liu, Zi-Yi Yu, Yuan Fang, Su-Na Yin, Cai-Feng Wang, Li Chen and Su Chen

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24749

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      This article reports a new strategy to quickly synthesize colloidal crystal-loaded poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels by frontal polymerization. The as-prepared hydrogels behave dual pH and methanol sensitivity swiftly and can be macroscopically shown.

    3. Synthesis and characterization of thiazolothiazole-based polymers and their applications in polymer solar cells (pages 3129–3137)

      Sang Kyu Lee, In-Nam Kang, Jong-Cheol Lee, Won Suk Shin, Won-Wook So and Sang-Jin Moon

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24750

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      A novel series of thiazolothiazole-based copolymers were synthesized for the use as donor materials in polymer solar cells. The thiazolothiazole-based polymers showed power conversion efficiencies for the polymer solar cells in the range of 2.23–2.75% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm2).

    4. Synthesis, characterization, and rheological properties of multiarm stars with poly(glycidol) core and poly(methyl methacrylate) arms by AGET ATRP (pages 3138–3151)

      Mireia Morell, Brigitte Voit, Xavier Ramis, Àngels Serra and Albena Lederer

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24751

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      Well-defined multiarm stars with a poly(glycidol) core and a different number of PMMA arms were prepared by core-first ATRP approach. The effect of monomer/initiator ratio, catalyst, time, temperature and solvent on the growing of the arms has been studied in detail. Strong influence of the number and length of the arms on thermal and rheological properties of the multiarm stars was detected.

    5. Mechanism of high thermal stability of commercial polyesters and polyethers conjugated with bio-based caffeic acid (pages 3152–3162)

      Tran Hang Thi, Michiya Matsusaki, Hiroshi Hirano, Hiroaki Kawano, Yasuyuki Agari and Mitsuru Akashi

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24752

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      The mechanisms of 10 % weight-loss temperature increased over 100 °C of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA), poly(DL-lactide) (PDLLA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) after terminal conjugation of 3,4-diacetoxycinnamic acid (DACA) were clarified in relation to π-π stacking interactions of DACA units, protection of OH end group and the residual tin catalyst. The amount of residual tin, which enhances the thermal degradation of polyesters, was reduced at undetected level after the terminal conjugation of DACA. DACA-polymers may be useful as photoreactive PLLA, PDLLA, PCL, and PEG with high thermal stability for biomedical and environmental applications.

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    1. Synthesis and characterization of temperature-sensitive block-graft PNiPAAm-b-(PαN3CL-g-alkyne) copolymers by ring-opening polymerization and click reaction (pages 3163–3173)

      Ren-Shen Lee and Ke-Pu Wu

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24753

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      The LCST values of PNiPAAm10-b-(PαN3CL26-g-PAA25), and PNiPAAm10-b-(PαN3CL26-g-PBA16) were 34.1 °C, and 38.2 °C, respectively. At temperatures above the LCST, the partially destroyed micellar structure caused the loaded drug to be released much more quickly.

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    1. Synthesis of polymers bearing 1,3-benzoxazine moiety in the side chains from poly(allylamine) and their crosslinking behaviors (pages 3174–3183)

      Hiroaki Oie, Atsushi Sudo and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24754

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      Polymers bearing benzoxazine moieties and o-(aminomethyl)phenol moieties with a variety of their content were synthesized from poly(allylamine) based on a stepwise strategy. o-(Aminomethyl)phenol moieties in the polymers exhibited a significant promoting effect on the ring-opening reaction of benzoxazine moieties.

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    1. One-pot synthesis of polyrotaxane by clipping and cyclopolymerization of α,ω-diethynyl isophthalamide with pyridiniumdicarboxamide chloride (pages 3184–3192)

      Takuya Isono, Toshifumi Satoh and Toyoji Kakuchi

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24755

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      The one-pot synthesis of a main -chain-type polyrotaxane was performed by the cyclopolymerization of a diethynyl monomer, which clips onto an axle component. The cyclopolymerization gave a gel-free polymer, which assigned to the polyrotaxane based on 1H NMR, DOSY, CD, and SEC measurements.

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    1. Synthesis of pyrene end-capped A6 dendrimer and star polymer with phosphazene core via “click chemistry” (pages 3193–3206)

      Mesut Gorur, Faruk Yilmaz, Adem Kilic, Zeynep M. Sahin and Ali Demirci

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24756

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      The Pyrene end-capped phosphazene dendrimer (N3P3-(Pyr)6) and star polymer with poly(ε-caprolactone) arms (N3P3-(PCL-Pyr)6) were synthesized via two series of reactions. Cu(I)-catalyzed “click reactions” were used for the functionalization of the end groups in the final steps. The obtained pyrene end-capped dendrimer and star polymer showed the ground state pyrene–pyrene association and excimer emission when excited with a UV laser at 350 nm. The excimer emissions were more extensive in the case of (N3P3-(Pyr)6). Moreover, they were used in the noncovalent grafting of multiwalled carbon nanotube.

    2. Synthesis and properties of mesogen-jacketed liquid crystalline polymers containing biphenyl mesogen with asymmetric substitutions (pages 3207–3217)

      Lanying Zhang, Hongliang Wu, Zhihao Shen, Xinghe Fan and Qifeng Zhou

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24757

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      A series of mesogen-jacketed liquid crystalline polymers (MJLCPs), poly(alkyl 4′-(octyloxy)-2-vinylbiphenyl-4-carboxylate) (pVBP(m,8), m = 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) were synthesized through conventional free radical polymerization. The liquid crystalline phases that developed at high temperatures and disappeared at low temperatures were strongly dependent on the difference in alkyl lengths on the 4 and 4′ substitution positions of the side-chain biphenyl. Polymer pVBP(8,8) showed a tetragonal columnar nematic liquid crystalline phase, and the other LC polymers exhibited columnar nematic phases.

    3. Synthesis strategies to incorporate acrylic acid into N-vinylcaprolactam-based microgels (pages 3218–3227)

      Ainara Imaz and Jacqueline Forcada

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24758

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      Two different synthesis strategies were used to synthesize N-vinylcaprolactam (VCL)-acrylic acid (AA)-based temperature- and pH-sensitive microgels under the adequate conditions to avoid possible hydrolysis of VCL. The results indicate that the addition of AA after 30 minutes of reaction time helped to incorporate higher amounts of AA into microgels and as a result, to obtain both temperature- and pH-sensitive nanoparticles.

    4. Thermoreversible gelation of helical polypeptide/single-walled carbon nanotubes and their solid-state structures (pages 3228–3238)

      Haoyu Tang, Chang-Uk Lee and Donghui Zhang

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24759

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      Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been functionalized with well-defined (polymer molecular weight and molecular weight distribution) poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate)s (PBLGs) by a graft-to method. Toluene solutions containing 5 wt % free PBLG and variable amounts of PBLG-functionalized SWCNTs (PBLG-SWCNTs) form gels at room temperature. Enhanced interactions between the PBLG-SWCNTs and PBLG rods were revealed by DSC, Raman, and S/WAXS studies.

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    1. You have free access to this content
      Erratum: Synthesis and properties of biobased epoxy resins. Part 1. Glycidylation of flavonoids by epichlorohydrin (page 3239)

      Hélène Nouailhas, Chahinez Aouf, Christine Le Guerneve, Sylvain Caillol, Bernard Boutevin and Hélène Fulcrand

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24764

      This article corrects:

      Synthesis and properties of biobased epoxy resins. part 1. Glycidylation of flavonoids by epichlorohydrin

      Vol. 49, Issue 10, 2261–2270, Article first published online: 28 MAR 2011

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