Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 49 Issue 16

15 August 2011

Volume 49, Issue 16

Pages 3455–3671

  1. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Articles
    3. Research Articles
    4. Articles
    5. Notes
    6. Erratum
    1. Atom transfer radical polymerization synthesis and photoresponsive solution behavior of spiropyran end-functionalized polymers as simplistic molecular probes (pages 3455–3463)

      Claudia Ventura, Robert Byrne, Fabrice Audouin and Andreas Heise

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24778

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      PMMA of two different molecular weights having a single photochromic benzospiropyran (BSP) end-group were synthesized by ATRP. Both polymers exhibit photochroism characterized by the UV induced transition from BSP to benzomerocyanine (BMC) in acetonitrile. A strong molecular weight dependence of the thermal relaxation kinetic of the BMC was found with a significantly faster temperature dependent transition for the higher molecular weight polymer. This suggests an energetically unfavorable non-polar environment of the BMC group in the higher molecular weight polymers while a higher solvation of the BMC in the lower molecular weight polymer contributes to its stabilization.

    2. “Click” synthesis of thermally stable au nanoparticles with highly grafted polymer shell and control of their behavior in polymer matrix (pages 3464–3474)

      Jongmin Lim, Hyunseung Yang, Kwanyeol Paek, Chul-Hee Cho, Seyong Kim, Joona Bang and Bumjoon J. Kim

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24782

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      Thermally stable core–shell Au nanoparticles with highly grafted polymer shell were synthesized by combining RAFT polymerization and click chemistry of copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. To achieve an efficient click reaction between hydrophobic polymers and azide-functionalized Au nanoparticles, the reaction condition was carefully investigated and optimized. The polymer-coated Au NPs were dispersed well in both PS and PS-b-P2VP matrix without any aggregation even after 220 °C annealing for 2 days, proving their extremely high thermal stability.

    3. Pyrenylamine-functionalized aromatic polyamides as efficient blue-emitters and multicolored electrochromic materials (pages 3475–3490)

      Yi-Chun Kung and Sheng-Huei Hsiao

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24783

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      New series of pyrenylamine-functionalized aromatic polyamides have been prepared from N,N-di(4-carboxyphenyl)-1-aminopyrene with various aromatic diamines via the phosphorylation polyamidation reaction. All the polymers could form morphologically stable and uniform amorphous films using simple solution-casting techniques. They also showed high Tg and good thermal stability. When comparing with the analogous polyamides based on N,N-di(4-aminophenyl)-1-aminopyrene, the present series polyamides displayed a blue-shifted emission in the deep blue region together with an enhanced fluorescence quantum efficiency.

    4. Versatile synthesis of asymmetrical dendron-like/dendron-like poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate) block copolymers (pages 3491–3498)

      Wei Liu and Chang-Ming Dong

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24784

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      Asymmetrical dendron-like/dendron-like block copolymers PCL208-b-PBLGn (n = 1, 2, and 4) were successfully synthesized by combining CuAAC and ROP. Both the maximal melting temperature and the degree of crystallinity of PCL block decreased with increasing the PBLG branches and/or the chain length; while, the PBLG block progressively transformed from β-sheet to α-helical conformation with increasing the PBLG chain length. Importantly, this establishes a versatile strategy for the synthesis of biodegradable and biomimetic block copolymers with asymmetrical dendritic topology.

    5. Liquid crystalline dendrimers containing photoactive cinnamate units (pages 3499–3512)

      Ana I. Viñuales, Jose Luis Serrano, Raquel Giménez, Milagros Piñol, Jaroslaw Tomczyk and Joachim Stumpe

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24785

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      Liquid crystalline photoactive macromolecules have been prepared by attaching cinnamate-derived units and cyanobiphenyl units at the periphery of the third generation poly(propyleneimine) dendrimer. Cinnamate dendrimers containing the 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)cinnamate moiety show clearly differentiated absorption regions for the photoactive unit and the LC unit, avoiding interferences with other chromophores in the irradiation experiments.

    6. A new terpyridine tethered polythiophene: Electrosynthesis and characterization (pages 3513–3523)

      Paola Manca, Maria I. Pilo, Giovanni Casu, Serafino Gladiali, Gavino Sanna, Roberta Scanu, Nadia Spano, Antonio Zucca, Chiara Zanardi, Diego Bagnis and Luca Valentini

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24786

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      The introduction of an ethynyl function as tether proved fundamental to modify the electronic connection between the two main fragments of the molecule. The role of such modification is demonstrated by the comparison of electrochemical and optical features of the relative conducting polymer with the analog saturated–tethered species.

    7. Preparation of novel suspensions of ZnO/living block copolymer latex nanoparticles via pickering emulsion polymerization and their long term stability (pages 3524–3535)

      I-Chen Chou, Chia-Fen Lee and Wen-Yen Chiu

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24787

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      In this work, Pickering emulsion polymerization was first combined with a controlled/living radical polymerization (LRP) inside. A series of self-made stable dispersions of ZnO/poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) PSS-- nanocomposite particles were served as the stabilizer in Pickering emulsion. The 1,1-diphenylethene (DPE)-controlled living block copolymer poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(butyl acrylate) (PMMA-b-PBA) was successfully synthesized in latex particles. The controlled/living characters in Pickering emulsion polymerization were discussed.

    8. Removal of the copper catalyst from atom transfer radical polymerization mixtures by chemical reduction with zinc powder (pages 3536–3542)

      Fatma Canturk, Bunyamin Karagoz and Niyazi Bicak

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24789

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      Addition of small amounts of activated zinc powder to atom transfer radical polymerization mixture yields colorless solution and elemental copper precipitate at the bottom, within minutes, while retaining the terminal bromides of the polymer. Long-term stirring with zinc powder (i.e., 24 h) results in dehalogenation of the polymer end groups.

    9. Synthesis of π-conjugated copolymers composed of benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazole and thiophene units bearing various alkyl groups and their application to photovoltaic cells (pages 3543–3549)

      Kwang-Hoi Lee, Ho-Jin Lee, Kouji Kuramoto, Yohei Tanaka, Kazuhide Morino, Atsushi Sudo, Tatsuo Okauchi, Akihiko Tsuge and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24790

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      π-Conjugated copolymers, PTOTBT, PTEHTBT, and PTt-BTBT, composed of benzothiadiazole as an electron accepting unit and terthiophene as an electron donating unit in the backbone were prepared. Solubility, optical, and thermal properties of the polymers showed strong dependences on their side chain groups. PTEHTBT having 2-ethylhexyl groups in the side chain exhibited absorption maximum (λmax) at longer wavelength (565 nm) than PTOTBT (534 nm) and PTt-BTBT (495 nm). The prepared polymers were employed to polymer solar cells (PSCs) with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT-PSS/polymer:PC61BH/LiF/Al. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSC based on PTEHTBT was 1.32%.

    10. Synthesis and fluorescent properties of model compounds for conjugated polymer containing maleimide units at the main chain (pages 3550–3558)

      Kenjiro Onimura, Mieko Matsushima, Munetoshi Nakamura, Tatsuya Tominaga, Kazuhiro Yamabuki and Tsutomu Oishi

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24792

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      π-Conjugated polymers are particularly interesting in the field of electrooptic materials. Coupling-polymerizations of 2,3-dibromo-N-substituted maleimide were carried out using palladium or nickel catalysts. When exposed to ultraviolet light of wavelength 352 nm, a series of 1,4-phenylene- and/or 2,5-thienylene-based copolymers containing N-substituted maleimide derivatives fluoresced in a yellow to blue color.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Articles
    3. Research Articles
    4. Articles
    5. Notes
    6. Erratum
    1. Modification of ultra-high-molecular weight polyethylene by various fluorinating routes (pages 3559–3573)

      Alexander P. Kharitonov, Galina V. Simbirtseva, Vyacheslav M. Bouznik, Maxim G. Chepezubov, Marc Dubois, Katia Guérin, Andre Hamwi, Hayat Kharbache and Francis Masin

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24793

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      Total surface energy γ versus storage duration of fluorinated UHMPE treated with 6.7% F2 + 6.7% O2 + 86.6% He mixture at 24 °C during 5 (black) and 30 (red) s and 1 (green) and 3 (yellow) min.

  3. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Articles
    3. Research Articles
    4. Articles
    5. Notes
    6. Erratum
    1. Optimization of the shape memory effect in shape memory polymers (pages 3574–3581)

      L. Sun, W. M. Huang, C. C. Wang, Y. Zhao, Z. Ding and H. Purnawali

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24794

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      We show that given a thermoresponsive shape memory polymer, it is possible to alter a number of its properties, such as the recovery temperature, shape fixity ratio, maximum recovery stress and final recovery stress (and even a right combination of some of them, e.g., the maximum recovery stress and final recovery stress), simply by means of selecting the programming temperature to achieve optimized performance. The underlying mechanisms are revealed, and concerns in real applications are discussed.

    2. Preparation and properties of ionic-liquid-containing poly(ethylene glycol)-based networked polymer films having lithium salt structures (pages 3582–3587)

      Kozo Matsumoto and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24795

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      Ionic-liquid-containing polymer films were prepared by swelling poly(ethylene glycol)-based networked polymers having lithium salt structures with an ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (EMImFSI), or with an EMImFSI solution of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). Their fundamental physical properties were investigated.

    3. ATRP of MMA under 60Co γ-irradiation at room temperature (pages 3588–3594)

      Qifeng Chen, Zhengbiao Zhang, Nianchen Zhou, Zhenping Cheng, Jian Zhu, Wei Zhang and Xiulin Zhu

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24797

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      60Co γ-irradiation mediated ATRP of MMA was first reported using copper (II) bromide as the catalyst source, the active copper (I) complex was generated from air-stable copper (II) species under 60Co γ-irradiation environment without using any reducing agent at room temperature. The concentration of the copper catalyst that required offering a controlled polymerization of MMA could be drastically reduced to 20 ppm, which showed the superiority of ATRP under 60Co γ-irradiation.

    4. Well-defined succinylated chitosan-O-poly(oligo(ethylene glycol)methacrylate) for pH-reversible shielding of cationic nanocarriers (pages 3595–3603)

      Chengjun Kang, Lin Yu, Guoqiang Cai, Liqun Wang and Hongliang Jiang

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24798

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      Cationic nanocarriers can be pH-reversibly shielded with the titled graft copolymer by electrostatic interactions. The critical de-shielding pH can be modulated simply by varying the degree of succinylation of succinylated chitosan-O-poly(oligo(ethylene glycol)methacrylate)SC-POEGMA.

    5. Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of copolymers based on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene and thiophene with electron-withdrawing side chains (pages 3604–3614)

      Yujuan Nie, Bin Zhao, Peng Tang, Peng Jiang, Zongfang Tian, Ping Shen and Songting Tan

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24799

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      Six alternating conjugated copolymers, comprised of benzo[1,2-b: 4,5-b0] dithiophene (BDT) and thiophene derivatives with/without electron-withdrawing side chains, were designed and synthesized. The introduction of conjugated electron-withdrawing oxadiazole or butyl formate side chain benefits to decrease the bandgaps of the polymers and improve the photovoltaic performance. Under the illumination of AM 1.5, 100 mW/cm2, the photovoltaic cells based on the polymers of PL3 and PL5 exhibit the power conversion efficiencies of 1.98 and 2.06%, respectively.

    6. Combined techniques for the characterization of linear–hyperbranched hybrid poly(butylene adipate) copolymers (pages 3615–3630)

      Filippo Samperi, Salvatore Battiato, Concetto Puglisi, Andrea Scamporrino, Veronica Ambrogi, Laura Ascione and Cosimo Carfagna

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24800

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      Linear-hyperbranched hybrid poly(butylene adipate) (HPBA) copolymers were synthesized through a branching reaction between the linear PBA terminated with methyl ester groups and different mols of the 1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl) propane as branching agent, in the presence of titanium(IV) isopropoxide as catalyst. Their composition was investigated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, which reveals that all samples were constituted of linear and hyperbranched (HB) macromolecules. HB macromolecules, which have ether bonds and a cyclic branch, were also characterized. The average molar masses (MMs) of HPBAs were calculated by the size exclusion chromatography-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry absolute calibration method. It shows that HPBAs have a hydrodynamic volume higher than that of linear polystyrenes with similar MMs.

    7. Ring-opening polymerization of 1,3-benzoxazines by p-toluenesulfonates as thermally latent initiators (pages 3631–3636)

      Atsushi Sudo, Hiroshi Yamashita and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24801

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      Cyclohexyl and neopentyl p-toluenesulfonates were used as thermally latent initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of benzoxazines. These sulfonates were mixed with benzoxazines without inducing their polymerizations below 100°C until 3 h, while they underwent the thermal dissociation above the specific threshold temperatures to generate p-toluenesulfonic acid, which initiated the ring-opening polymerization of benzoxazines.

    8. Fluorinated AB diblock copolymers and their aggregates in organic solvents (pages 3647–3657)

      Yin-Ning Zhou, Hua Cheng and Zheng-Hong Luo

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24804

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      The fluorinated and nonamphiphilic PS-b-PHFBMA diblock copolymer was successfully synthesized by ATRP. The TEM images suggest that the morphological structures of aggregates changes from spheres to vesicles with the increasing volume ratio of EtOAc in the solution. By heating the sample, the sizes of vesicles increase, which shows that the resulting polymer is to some extent temperature-sensitive.

    9. Triphenylamine-based polyimides with trimethyl substituents for gas separation membrane and electrochromic applications (pages 3637–3646)

      Hung-ju Yen, Shiue-ming Guo, Jui-ming Yeh and Guey-Sheng Liou

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24802

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      Two series of polyimides III with methyl-substituted triphenylamine units were prepared from the synthesized diamines with two commercially available tetracarboxylic dianhydrides via a conventional two-step chemical imidization. All the polymers were readily soluble in many polar solvents and showed useful levels of thermal stability. The polymer films showed reversible electrochemistry accompanied by a color change from neutral colorless to green oxidized form. Gas permeability analyses of some polyimides for CO2, CH4, O2, and N2 were also been investigated.

    10. In situ synthesis of polymer/clay nanocomposites by type II photoinitiated free radical polymerization (pages 3658–3663)

      Cagatay Altinkok, Tamer Uyar, Mehmet Atilla Tasdelen and Yusuf Yagci

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24788

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      A new synthetic route for the preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate)/montmorillonite (PMMA/MMT) nanocomposites was reported. In this method, first 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate group was incorporated into silicate layers of clay by esterification reaction and used to produce PMMA/MMT nanocomposites by in situ Type II photoinitiated free radical polymerization. In situ photopolymerization of methyl methacrylate through into the silicate layers by either visible or UV light irradiation leads to PMMA/MMT nanocomposites.

  4. Notes

    1. Top of page
    2. Articles
    3. Research Articles
    4. Articles
    5. Notes
    6. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      π-Electron-system-layered polymers comprising thiophene/furan oligomers (pages 3664–3670)

      Jonas Alves Fernandes, Yasuhiro Morisaki and Yoshiki Chujo

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24791

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      Three kinds of thiophene/furan-oligomer-layered polymers based on xanthene were prepared using Stille coupling polymerization.

  5. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. Articles
    3. Research Articles
    4. Articles
    5. Notes
    6. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content

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