Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 49 Issue 17

1 September 2011

Volume 49, Issue 17

Pages 3673–3889

  1. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Articles
    1. High glass transition and thermally stable polynorbornenes containing fluorescent dipyrene moieties via ring-opening metathesis polymerization (pages 3673–3680)

      Wei-Ren Lian, Han-Yu Wu, Kun-Li Wang, Der-Jang Liaw, Kueir-Rarn Lee and Juin-Yih Lai

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24796

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      Polynorbornenes containing dipyrene chromophores with high thermal (Tg 250 °C and Td10% 450 °C) and over 91% transparency were derived via ROMP. The poly (HNBEDPY) showed reversible electrochromic characteristics, with a color change from green to dark red upon the application of potentials from 0 to 1.0 V.

    2. Upper critical solution temperature switchable micelles based on polystyrene-block-poly(methyl acrylate) block copolymers (pages 3681–3687)

      Aydin Can, Stephanie Hoeppener, Pierre Guillet, Jean-François Gohy, Richard Hoogenboom and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24803

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      The upper critical solution temperature behavior of poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) is reported in aqueous ethanol solutions. In addition, the temperature-responsive behavior of a series of poly(styrene)-b-poly(methyl acrylate) block copolymers with varying composition is discussed, including the effect of block length on the temperature-induced solubility transition as well as temperature responsive micellization. These micellar structures were investigated by temperature controlled dynamic light scattering as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryogenic-TEM revealing the presence of spherical homogeneously sized micelles.

    3. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of several aromatic ketone-based two-photon initiators (pages 3688–3699)

      Zhiquan Li, Marton Siklos, Niklas Pucher, Klaus Cicha, Aliasghar Ajami, Wolfgang Husinsky, Arnulf Rosspeintner, Eric Vauthey, Georg Gescheidt, Jürgen Stampfl and Robert Liska

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24806

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      Several novel aromatic ketone-based two-photon initiators containing triple bonds and dialkylamino groups were synthesized and characterized. Among the evaluated photoinitiators (PIs), 2-, 7-substituted fluorenone-based PI B3FL exhibited the best performance with a large TPA cross section value of 440 GM and much broader processing window than that of reference PIs, as well as good solubility in resins. Nicely shaped structures could be produced with a photoinitiator concentration as low as 0.1% wt.

    4. Convenient grafting through approach for the preparation of stealth polymeric blood pool magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents (pages 3700–3708)

      Mathurin Grogna, Rudi Cloots, André Luxen, Christine Jérôme, Catherine Passirani, Nolwenn Lautram, Jean-F. Desreux and Christophe Detrembleur

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24805

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      New hydrosoluble magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) macrocontrast agents are synthesized by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) copolymerization of poly(ethylene oxide) methyl ether acrylate (PEOMA) with an acrylamide bearing a ligand for gadolinium, followed by the complexation of Gd3+. This convenient and simple grafting through approach leads to macrocontrast agents with a high relaxivity at high frequency. Moreover the poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) brush efficiently hides the gadolinium complex and renders it stealth to the proteins of the immune system. Improved contrast and long blood circulating properties are thus expected for these MRI macrocontrast agents.

    5. Novel high-performance polymer memory devices containing (OMe)2tetraphenyl-p-phenylenediamine moieties (pages 3709–3718)

      Chih-Jung CHen, Hung-Ju Yen, Wen-Chang Chen and Guey-Sheng Liou

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24807

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      The functionalized polyimide (OMe)2TPPA-6FPI and polyamide (OMe)2TPPA-6FPA were prepared for memory application. The difference of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) charge density isosurfaces, dipole moment, and linkage conformation between these two polymers was found to affect the volatile memory behavior. (OMe)2TPPA-6FPI exhibited dynamic random access memory (DRAM) characteristic, whereas (OMe)2TPPA-6FPA showed static random access memory (SRAM) behavior, and both two polymer memory devices revealed excellent stability at continuous -2 V.

    6. Controlling crosslinking in thermosets via chain transfer with monoterpenes (pages 3719–3727)

      Justin M. Delancey, Matthew D. Cavazza, Matthew G. Rendos, Cory J. Ulisse, Susan G. Palumbo and Robert T. Mathers

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24808

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      Monoterpenes control the degree of crosslinking during ring-opening metathesis polymerizations through chain transfer. The resulting physical properties of dicyclopentadiene thermosets were tailored to obtain desired modulus and glass transition (Tg) temperatures.

    7. Combining renewable gum rosin and lignin: Towards hydrophobic polymer composites by controlled polymerization (pages 3728–3738)

      Jifu Wang, Kejian Yao, Andrew L. Korich, Shigeng Li, Shuguo Ma, Harry J. Ploehn, Peter M. Iovine, Chunpeng Wang, Fuxiang Chu and Chuanbing Tang

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24809

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      Lignin–rosin composites were prepared via a “grafting from” living atom transfer radical polymerization. It was demonstrated that the surface of rosin–lignin composites was dominated with chemical compositions originating from hydrocarbon-based rosin moiety. The impartation of hydrophobicity of rosin into lignin provided excellent water resistance of this class of renewable polymers.

    8. End-functionalization of isotactic polypropylene via consecutive chain transfer reaction to norbornadiene and hydrogen (pages 3739–3750)

      Jing-Yu Lee and Jing-Cherng Tsai

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24810

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      Norbornadiene (NBD) end-capped isotactic polypropylene (iPP) is prepared by conducting the isospecific polymerization of propylene in the presence of NBD and hydrogen using rac-Me2Si(2-Me-4-Ph-Ind) 2 ZrCl2/MAO as the catalyst. The production of NBD-capped iPP involves a unique consecutive chain transfer reaction, first to NBD and then to hydrogen, for situating the incorporated NBD at the iPP chain end. The unique chain transfer pathway offers an effective synthetic method for the preparation of iPP-based stereoregular block copolymers.

    9. Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of conjugated copolymers based on benzimidazole and various thiophene (pages 3751–3758)

      Suhee Song, Gi-hwan Kim, Ilsoo Kang, Youngeup Jin, Il Kim, Jin Young Kim and Hongsuk Suh

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24811

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      A new accepter unit, dimethyl-2H-benzimidazole, was prepared and used for the synthesis of the conjugated polymers containing electron donor–acceptor pair for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Dimethyl-2H-benzimidazole unit was designed to substitute the BT unit of poly(N-9′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′-benzothiadiazole)) (PCDTBT). A series of new semiconducting polymers with 2,2-dimethyl-2H-benzimidazole, 9-heptadecanyl-9H-carbazole, and thiophene (or bithiophene) units were synthesized using Stille polymerization to generate PCDTMBIs (or PCBBTMBIs).

    10. Synthesis and characterization of poly(2,5-furan dicarboxylate)s based on a variety of diols (pages 3759–3768)

      Mónica Gomes, Alessandro Gandini, Armando J. D. Silvestre and Bruno Reis

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24812

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      Novel polyesters incorporating furan moieties were prepared using a variety of diols. Their properties simulate those of aromatic counterparts and thus open a stimulating perspective related to the replacement of fossil-based materials by counterparts derived from renewable resources.

    11. Synthesis of various end-functionalized polyesters by controlled/living ring-opening polymerization of lactones using pentafluorophenylbis(triflyl)methane (pages 3769–3777)

      Kosuke Makiguchi, Toshifumi Satoh and Toyoji Kakuchi

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24815

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      Various end-functionalized poly(ε-caprolactone)s and poly(δ-valerolactone)s were produced by controlled/living ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone and δ-valerolactone using pentafluorophenybis(triflyl)methane as the catalyst and alcohols as the initiator.

    12. Half-lanthanocene/dialkylmagnesium-mediated coordinative chain transfer copolymerization of styrene and hexene (pages 3778–3782)

      Andreia Valente, Philippe Zinck, Andre' Mortreux, Marc Bria and Marc Visseaux

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24816

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      Coordinative chain transfer copolymerization of 1-hexene and styrene is reported using the Cp*La(BH4)2(THF)2/n-butylethylmagnesium (BEM) catalytic system. The occurence of chain transfer reactions in the presence of excess BEM enables to increase the quantity of hexene in the copolymer by a factor of ca. 3 for the same feed, extending the range of our concept of a chain transfer induced control of the composition of statistical copolymers to poly(styrene-co-hexene) copolymers.

    13. Synthesis of polymers bearing proline moieties in the side chains and their application as catalysts for asymmetric induction (pages 3783–3796)

      Atsushi Ikeda, Kayo Terada, Masashi Shiotsuki and Fumio Sanda

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24813

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      Novel polyphenylacetylene and polystyrene derivatives carrying L-proline moieties at the side chains were synthesized by the rhodium-catalyzed and radical polymerizations of the corresponding monomers. The polyphenylacetylene derivatives showed Cotton effects at the absorption region of the main chain, indicating that the polymers adopt helical conformations with predominantly one-handed screw sense. The polymers catalyzed the asymmetric aldol reactions of acetone with aromatic aldehydes and cyclohexanone with p-nitrobenzaldehyde. The ee of the products became higher as the reaction temperature was decreased. The ee was improved using the copolymers of L-proline-based and nonchiral monomers as catalysts.

    14. Copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide under inorganic oxide supported rare earth ternary catalyst (pages 3797–3804)

      Hongwei Lu, Yusheng Qin, Xianhong Wang, Xiangguang Yang, Suobo Zhang and Fosong Wang

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24817

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      Supported rare-earth ternary catalyst was used for the alternating copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide, an improvement of 16–36% in catalytic activity was realized, and poly(propylene oxide) with an average number molecular weight (Mn) of over 100 kg/mol and carbonate unit content of higher than 96% was prepared.

    15. Mixed-valence class I transition and electrochemistry of bis(triphenylamine)-based aramids containing isolated ether-linkage (pages 3805–3816)

      Hung-Ju Yen, Shiue-Ming Guo, Guey-Sheng Liou, Jen-Chieh Chung, Yu-Chang Liu, Yung-Fang Lu and Yu-Zhen Zeng

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24819

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      Solution-processable electrochromic (EC) aromatic polyamides with bis(triphenylamine)ether (TPAO) units in the backbone were prepared from the polycondensation reactions. The mixed-valence (MV) Class I/II/III transition and electrochemistry were investigated for bridged triarylamine systems with various N[BOND]N distances and intramolecular electron transfer (ET) process.

    16. Acrylic copolymers with pendant 1,2,4-triazole moieties as colorimetric sensory materials and solid phases for the removal and sensing of cations from aqueous media (pages 3817–3825)

      Ana Gómez-Valdemoro, Miriam Trigo, Saturnino Ibeas, Félix Clemente García, Felipe Serna and José Miguel García

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24820

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      This work describes water-soluble copolymethacrylamides and cross-linked gel materials (powder and films or dense membranes) with pendant 1,2,4-triazole moieties as host or receptor, motifs, and their application to the extraction of environmentally deleterious cations from aqueous media and to the colorimetric sensing of cations, including detection by the naked eye.

    17. Comparative study of amphiphilic hyperbranched and linear polymer stabilized organo-soluble gold nanoparticles as efficient recyclable catalysts in the biphasic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (pages 3826–3834)

      Nan Hu, Jing-Yuan Yin, Qiang Tang and Yu Chen

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24818

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      Compared with the organo-soluble AuNPs stabilized by the amphiphilic linear polymers, those stabilized by the amphiphilic hyperbranched polymers were more robust in the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol by NaBH4, and could be recovered and reused more times.

    18. Poly(acrylic acid) is a common noncompetitive inhibitor for cationic enzymes with high affinity and reversibility (pages 3835–3841)

      Shunsuke Tomita and Kentaro Shiraki

      Version of Record online: 29 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24822

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      Anionic poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor for cationic ribonuclease A, lysozyme, and trypsin, and carries several potent binding sites for enzymes. The inhibited enzymes were highly recovered by cationic poly(allylamine) (PAA). These findings indicate that only surface charge on enzymes and not the active site residues of the enzymes should be considered when determining a charged polymer for use as an enzyme inhibitor.

    19. Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of two-dimensional D-A copolymers with conjugated side chains (pages 3852–3862)

      Dugang Chen, Yang Yang, Cheng Zhong, Zhengran Yi, Fei Wu, Li Qu, Yu Li, Yongfang Li and Jingui Qin

      Version of Record online: 29 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24823

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      Four novel two-dimensional copolymers with donors–acceptors (D-A) in main chains and various conjugated electron-rich or -deficient groups in side chains are designed and synthesized. The photovoltaic properties of the polymers were preliminary investigated when they were blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester as the active layer in the photovoltaic devices.

    20. Heterocyclic monomers via reissert chemistry (pages 3842–3851)

      Harry W. Gibson, Melvin L. Rasco and Zhenbin Niu

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24821

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      Reissert compound chemistry provides very efficient syntheses of heterocyclic monomers. In the present work, the following 1,4-disubstituted isoquinoline-based monomers were prepared: an AA bisphenol, an AB activated fluoro-phenol, and an AB2 alcohol-diester precursor.

    21. Synthesis and properties of sulfonated poly(arylene ether)s containing azole groups (pages 3863–3873)

      Byungchan Bae, Shinya Kawamura, Kenji Miyatake and Masahiro Watanabe

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24824

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      Oxadiazole groups increased proton conductivity of sulfonated poly(arylene ether) membrane due to the enhanced hydrophilicity. The proton conductivity was comparable to that of Nafion at >60% RH (relative humidity) at 80 °C. Combination of block copolymer structure and oxadiazole groups was more effective to balance water absorbing and proton conductive properties. However, oxadiazole groups gave negative impact on hydrolytic and mechanical stability to the SPE membranes.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Articles
    1. Significantly improved photovoltaic performances of the dithiophene-benzothiadiazole-alt-fluorene copolymers by incorporating carbazole units in fluorene moiety (pages 3874–3881)

      Ming Liu, Yafei Wang, Zhiyong Zhang, Jianming Li, Yu Liu, Hua Tan, Meijun Ni, Gangtie Lei, Meixiang Zhu and Weiguo Zhu

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24825

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      The short-circuit current density (Jsc) and power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of the dithiophene-benzothiadiazole-alt-fluorene copolymers were significantly improved by introducing carbazole groups at C-9 positions of the fluorene units. A maximum PCE of 2.41%, a highest Jsc of 9.68 mA cm−2 were obtained for the PFO-FCz-DBT30, which are about two times higher than the corresponding levels for the PFO-DBT30 in the bulk heterojunction solar cells.

  3. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Articles
    1. Synthesis of diketopyrrolopyrrole-containing conjugated polyelectrolytes for naked-eye detection of DNA (pages 3882–3889)

      Shuimu Lin, Shouping Liu, Hanxun Zou, Wennan Zeng, Lingyun Wang, Roger Beuerman and Derong Cao

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24829

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      Two cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes (P1 and P2) containing diacetylene, diketopyrrolopyrrole, and fluorene units were synthesized for DNA detection. The addition of CT DNA might result in more efficient FRET from fluoreneethynylene segments to DPP units. The change in the PL spectra and the color change from blue to red with addition of CT DNA revealed that the DPP-containing polymers could be used for sensitive and naked-eye detection of DNA without interference of common ions.