Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 49 Issue 18

15 September 2011

Volume 49, Issue 18

Pages i–iv, 3891–4101

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      Cover Image, Volume 49, Issue 18 (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24929

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Dendrimer-star poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (DPCL) can be converted into ATRP macroinitiator (DPCLCl2) for the synthesis of tunable thermosensitive amphiphilic dendrimer-star copolymers with Y-shaped arms, as presented by Weizhong Yuan and colleagues on page 4071 of this issue. DPCL molecules can present crystallizability at room temperature, and the crystalline morphology is measured by polarized optical microscope. The spherulites of DPCL can be observed, but the size of the spherulites is much smaller than that of linear PCL, and no obvious Maltese cross patterns are found. This can be attributed to the decrease of crystallizability of DPCL and the branched structure of DPCL providing more crystal nuclei than linear structure.

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      Inside Cover, Volume 49, Issue 18 (pages iii–iv)

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24960

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      The figure shows the ideal micromorphology of polyisobutylene (PIB)-based polyurethanes extended with a conventional chain extender (CE) plus a H-bond accepting chain extender (HACE) in the relaxed and stressed states, as presented by Jungmee Kang, Gabor Erdodi, and Joseph P. Kennedy on page 3891. The hard segments present novel morphologies in which conventional CE + diisocyanate (DI) units (blue in the magnified images) are linked to flexible HACEs (green in the magnified images) by covalent and H-bonds (black in the magnified images). The H-bonds of HACEs reinforce the hard segments in the relaxed state, and mediate their deformation under stress.

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      Polyisobutylene-based polyurethanes with unprecedented properties and how they came about (pages 3891–3904)

      Jungmee Kang, Gabor Erdodi and Joseph P. Kennedy

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24839

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The figure shows an idealized micromorphology of a polyisobutylene (PIB)-based polyurethane (PU) containing H-bond-accepting chain extenders (HACEs) under stress. The hard segment presents a novel morphology in which conventional chain extender and diisocyanate (CE + DI) units are linked to flexible HACEs by covalent and H-bonds. The H-bonds due to HACEs reinforce the hard segments in the relaxed state and mediate deformation of the flexible hard segments under stress.

  3. Articles

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    1. Synthesis of novel copolymers obtained from acceptor/donor radical copolymerization of phosphonated allyl monomers and maleic anhydride (pages 3905–3910)

      C. Negrell-Guirao, G. David, B. Boutevin and K. Chougrani

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24827

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      Free radical copolymerization of maleic anhydride was successfully carried out in the presence of allyl monomers carrying phosphonate moieties, i.e.that is, diethyl phosphonate or dioxaphosphorinane group. Both monomer conversion and reaction rate were dependent on the phosphonate moieties carried out by the allyl monomer: the bulkier the phosphonate group, the higher the polymerization rate. Thermogravimetric analysis of the copolymers revealed a high content of residue, also varying with the nature of the phosphonate moieties.

    2. Pure blue electroluminescent poly(aryl ether)s with dopant–host systems (pages 3911–3919)

      Chunlei Bian, Guoxin Jiang, Hui Tong, Yanxiang Cheng, Zhiyuan Xie, Lixiang Wang, Xiabin Jing and Fosong Wang

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24828

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      A series of arylene ether polymers (P5F-BCzVFs) containing both pentafluorene (5F) and distyrylarylene derivative (BCzVF) units in the side chains for pure blue light emission were designed and synthesized as novel EL polymers with dopant-host systems. The EL performance of the single-layer device based on P5F-BCzVFs significantly surpassed that of the host-only polymer (P5F). The best one exhibited voltage-independent and stable pure blue emission with a Commission International de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinate of (0.15, 0.15), a maximum brightness of 3576 cd/m2, and a maximum luminous efficiencies of 2.15 cd/A.

    3. Synthesis of high molecular weight polymer nanoparticles by [Cp2ZrCl2] catalyzed emulsion polymerization (pages 3920–3927)

      Sudip K. De and Manish Bhattacharjee

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24830

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      An early transition metal metallocene compound, Cp2ZrCl2, with an anionic surfactant, sodium n-dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as emulsifier and NaBPh4 as cocatalyst has been found to be an effective catalytic system for polymerization and copolymerization of monomers like styrene and methyl methacrylate in aqueous medium. The diameters of the latex particles were found to be in between 20 and 40 nm.

    4. Copolyfluorenes containing pendant bipolar carbazole and 1,2,4-triazole groups: Synthesis, characterization, and optoelectronic applications (pages 3928–3938)

      Chia-Shing Wu and Yun Chen

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24831

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      Copolyfluorenes containing pendant bipolar groups (2.5–7.7 mol %), directly linked hole-transporting carbazole and electron-transporting aromatic 1,2,4-triazole, significantly enhance device performance of MEH-PPV (15,690 cd/m2 and 0.81 cd/A).

    5. Selective complete decomposition of poly(n-hexylisocyanate) and its use in a new molecular design method (pages 3939–3950)

      Kazunori Se and Tsuyoshi Iwata

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24832

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      PHIC-NH as a rod-like polymer having a [BOND]NH group at one end of the polymer chain was found to instantly (less than a few seconds) be completely decomposed by CH3ONa+ in THF/CH3OH under a mild experimental condition ([CH3ONa+] < 1 mol L−1 at room temperature). Using an “all or nothing” mechanism for the decomposition, the (PHIC)3.43 comb-shaped polymer and PSt-graft-(PHIC-NH)4.28 graft copolymer were, respectively, decomposed to produce (PHIC-NH)3.43–1.03 and PSt-graft-(PHIC-NH)4.28–0 in a series with different numbers of PHIC-NH combs and PHIC-NH grafts by regulating the amount of CH3ONa+ and the decomposition time.

    6. Covalent surface functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes through bergman cyclization of enediyne-containing dendrimers (pages 3951–3959)

      Jianguo Ma, Sheng Deng, Xin Cheng, Wei Wei and Aiguo Hu

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24834

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      A covalent functionalization method of pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was developed by using the free radicals generated through Bergman cyclization of enediyne-containing Frechet type dendrimers. The dendrimers functionalized MWCNTs showed good solubility/dispersibility in common organic solvents and polymer solutions. They were successfully applied to formation of polymer nanocomposites through electrospinning with polycaprolactone.

    7. Synthesis of poly(vinylidene fluoride)-b-poly(styrene sulfonate) block copolymers by controlled radical polymerizations (pages 3960–3969)

      Gaël Laruelle, Erwan Nicol, Bruno Ameduri, Jean-François Tassin and Noureddine Ajellal

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24836

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      Two controlled radical polymerization techniques were investigated to synthesize poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-b-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) block copolymers. First, iodine transfer polymerization of SSS and styrene sulfonate ethyl ester, using iodo-functionalized PVDF as the macrotransfer agent, was studied. Second, atom transfer radical polymerization of the same monomers was also investigated from PVDFs bearing trichloromethyl end groups as macroinitiators.

    8. Alumina additives for fast iron-mediated AGET ATRP of MMA using onium salt as ligand (pages 3970–3979)

      Liangjiu Bai, Lifen Zhang, Zhengbiao Zhang, Jian Zhu, Nianchen Zhou, Zhenping Cheng and Xiulin Zhu

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24837

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      Neutral and basic Al2O3 additives not only induce a fast iron-mediated AGET ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) but also enhance controllability over molecular weights and molecular weight distributions (∼1.2) of the resultant polymers. The polymerizations were carried out using FeCl3·6H2O as the catalyst, tetrabutylammonium bromide as the ligand, ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate as the initiator, and ascorbic acid as the reducing agent in the presence of a limited amount of air.

    9. Rate-enhanced ATRP in the presence of catalytic amounts of base: An example of iron-mediated AGET ATRP of MMA (pages 3980–3987)

      Liangjiu Bai, Lifen Zhang, Zhengbiao Zhang, Jian Zhu, Nianchen Zhou, Zhenping Cheng and Xiulin Zhu

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24838

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      The addition of catalytic amounts of base into an iron-mediated AGET ATRP of MMA system using onium salt as the ligand results in the dual enhancement of polymerization rate and controllability of molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of the resultant polymers. The polymerization can be successfully carried out in the presence of limited amounts of air, but does not sacrifice the polymerization controllability.

    10. Synthesis and self-assembly of novel amphiphilic copolymers poly(lactic acid)-block-poly(ascorbyl acrylate) (pages 3988–3996)

      Yanzhai Wang, Junjiao Yang and Jing Yang

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24840

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      A class of amphiphilic copolymers poly(lactic-acid)-block-poly(ascorbyl acrylate) can self-assemble into micelles with polymeric ascorbic acid as hydrophilic shell for targeting drug delivery.

    11. Characterization of resulting network polymer precursors in stepwise crosslinking diepoxide/diamine polymerization (pages 3997–4004)

      Akira Matsumoto, Yujiro Kaneda and Hiroyuki Aota

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24841

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      Our previous mechanistic discussion of network formation in chainwise cross-linking multiallyl polymerization was extended to stepwise cross-linking diepoxide/diamine polymerization, typically including bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether and 4,4″-diaminodiphenylmethane. The resulting network polymer precursors (NPPs) were characterized by SEC-MALLS-viscometry. The intrinsic viscosity ratio [η]NPP/[η]Linear tended to decrease with the progress of cross-linking, and finally, it reached less than 0.2. This suggests that the structure of resulting NPP becomes dendritic. These dendritic NPPs can collide with each other to form cross-links between NPPs, eventually leading to gelation.

    12. Kinetic elucidation of comonomer-induced chemical and physical activation in heterogeneous ziegler-natta propylene polymerization (pages 4005–4012)

      Toshiaki Taniike, Binh Tien Nguyen, Shougo Takahashi, Thang Quoc Vu, Mitsuhiro Ikeya and Minoru Terano

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24842

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      The origin of the activity enhancement in Ziegler-Natta olefin copolymerization was studied with stopped-flow and continuously purged polymerization techniques. In the early stage of polymerization, the rate constant for the propylene insertion was enhanced because of the addition of ethylene, whereas 1-hexene did not affect it. In the later stage, the activity enhancements in propylene copolymerization with ethylene or 1-hexene mainly arose from physical factors such as accelerated fragmentation and/or accelerated monomer diffusion.

    13. Regioselective grignard metathesis reaction of 2,5-dibromo-3-(6′-hexylpyridine-2′-yl)thiophene and kumada coupling polymerization (pages 4013–4020)

      Koji Takagi, Hyunho Joo, Yusuke Yamashita, Eiki Kawagita and Chikako Torii

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24843

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      The regioselective Grignard metathesis reaction of 2,5-dibromo-3-(6′-hexylpyridine-2′-yl)thiophene (DBPyTh) with isopropylmagnesium chloride at the 2-position was confirmed by the 1H NMR spectrum and the gas chromatograph (GC) profile. The Kumada coupling polymerization of the Grignard monomers using Ni(dppp)Cl2 was performed. The gel permeation chromatography analysis showed that the polymer molecular weight could be roughly controlled by the [DBPyTh]/[Ni(dppp)Cl2] ratio. The head-to-tail content was calculated to be 96% on the basis of the GC profiles of the reaction media. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-fright mass spectrum indicated that both polymer chain ends were substituted with the hydrogen atom. The optoelectronic properties were investigated by the ultraviolet, photoluminescence, and cyclic voltammogram measurements.

    14. Poly(p-phenylene methylene)-based block copolymers by mechanistic transformation (pages 4021–4026)

      Mehmet Atilla Tasdelen, Selim Beyazit, Deniz Gunes, Niyazi Bicak, Pinar Tatar, A. Levent Demirel and Yusuf Yagci

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24844

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      A new synthetic route for the synthesis of poly(p-phenylene methylene)-based block copolymers by mechanistic transformation was reported. In this method, first poly(p-phenylene methylene) was synthesized by acid-catalyzed polymerization of tribenzylborate at room temperature. Then, this polymer was used as macroinitiator either in the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone or cationic ring-opening polymerization of tetrahydrofuran. The structures and properties of the prepolymer and block copolymers were characterized by GPC, 1H NMR, DSC, TGA, and AFM investigations.

    15. Efficient catalysts for ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone and β-butyrolactone: Synthesis and characterization of zinc complexes based on benzotriazole phenoxide ligands (pages 4027–4036)

      Yu-En Tai, Chen-Yu Li, Chia-Her Lin, Yi-Chang Liu, Bao-Tsan Ko and Ya-Sen Sun

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24845

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      The ring-opening polymerizations of ε-caprolactone and β-butyrolactone catalyzed by efficient zinc benzotriazole phenoxide (BTP) catalysts in the presence of 9-anthracenemethanol were investigated. The catalytic system of complex 3 demonstrated great activity and effective control of molecular weight to produce PCL, PHB homopolymers and PCL-b-PHB copolymer.

    16. A thioxanthone-based visible photoinitiator (pages 4037–4043)

      Sevnur Keskin Dogruyol, Zekeriya Dogruyol and Nergis Arsu

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24846

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      Synthesis and characterization of 9-(2-Morpholine-4yl-acetyl)-5-thia-napthasen-12-one (TX-MPM) were performed. Photophysical properties; fluorescence and phosphorescence emission spectra and fluorescence quantum yield of TX-MPM (ϕf = 0.29) were determined. The phosphorescence lifetime was found 131 ms for TX-MPM. The beneficial effect is that this initiator does not require an additional hydrogen donor for polymerization of methyl methacrylate.

    17. Characterization of well-defined poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels prepared by thiol-ene chemistry (pages 4044–4054)

      Ting Yang, Hui Long, Michael Malkoch, E. Kristofer Gamstedt, Lars Berglund and Anders Hult

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24847

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      A set of hydrogels has been developed based on poly(ethylene glycol) of different length, end functionalized with diallyl, dithiol, and dimethacrylate, and crosslinked with complementary trifunctional crosslinkers. The hydrogels were analyzed by FT-Raman and NMR to study the conversion ratio of the functional groups. The effects of solvent type, solid content concentration, curing time and length of the PEG chains on the final leaching, swelling and tensile properties of the hydrogels were investigated.

    18. Synthesis of well-defined pH-responsive PPEGMEA-g-P2VP double hydrophilic graft copolymer via sequential SET-LRP and ATRP (pages 4055–4064)

      Sujuan Zhai, Xuemei Song, Dong Yang, Wulian Chen, Jianhua Hu, Guolin Lu and Xiaoyu Huang

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24848

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      A series of well-defined double hydrophilic graft copolymers, consisting of poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate) backbone and poly(2-vinylpyridine) side chains, were synthesized by sequential single electron transfer living radical polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and this kind of double hydrophilic graft copolymer is stimuli responsive to pH.

    19. Syntheses and optoelectronic properties of quinoxaline polymers: The effect of donor unit (pages 4065–4070)

      Merve Sendur, Abidin Balan, Derya Baran and Levent Toppare

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24849

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      Two new quinoxaline derivatives, EDOT- and thiophene-bearing conjugated polymers, were synthesized potentiodynamically to investigate donor group effect on the color of polymers. Electronic and optical properties of resulted polymers were compared with each other and also with a previously synthesized EDOT-bearing quinoxaline derivative.

    20. Synthesis, characterization, and properties of tunable thermosensitive amphiphilic dendrimer-star copolymers with Y-shaped arms (pages 4071–4080)

      Weizhong Yuan, Jinchun Zhang, Jingren Wei, Hua Yuan and Jie Ren

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24850

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      Amphiphilic dendrimer-star poly(ε-caprolactone)-block-(poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethylmethacrylate-co-oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate))2 (DPCL-b-(P(MEO2MA-co-OEGMA))2) copolymers with Y-shaped arms were synthesized by ROP and ATRP. The hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity transition of the copolymer film can be achieved by altering the temperatures. The amphiphilic copolymers can self-assemble into spherical nano-micelles in water. Because the lower critical solution temperature of the copolymers can be adjusted by varying the ratio of MEO2MA and OEGMA, the tunable thermosensitive properties can be observed. The release rate of model drug chlorambucil from the micelles can be effectively controlled by changing the external temperatures.

    21. Synthesis of double-hydrophilic block copolymers via combination of oxyanion-initiated polymerization and polymer reaction for fabricating magnetic target gene carrier (pages 4081–4091)

      Shihua Zhang, Zixu Gu, Ying Hao, Mingzu Zhang and Peihong Ni

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24851

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      A controlled magnetic target gene carrier with magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticle as core and PEG as corona has been prepared via a combination of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly and shell-crosslinking. In the LbL procedure, polycation EtO-PDMAEMA30 was synthesized via oxyanion-initiated polymerization and polyanion MePEG2000-b-PMAASH with partial mercapto groups ([BOND]SH) in poly(methacrylic acid) segment were synthesized via the combination of oxyanion-initiated polymerization and polymer reactions.

  4. Notes

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    4. Articles
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      Metal-free ring-opening polymerization of glycidyl phenyl ether initiated by tetra-n-butylammonium acetate and its application to the hydroxyl-terminated telechelic polymer (pages 4092–4097)

      Hisatoyo Morinaga, Yusuke Ujihara, Takahiro Yamanaka, Daisuke Nagai and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24833

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      A ring-opening polymerization of glycidyl phenyl ether (GPE) was performed with a metal-free tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (Bu4NOAc). The polymerization of GPE initiated by Bu4NOAc enables to control the molecular weight of poly(GPE). This metal-free GPE polymerization system with Bu4NOAc is useful, because the hydroxyl terminated telechelic polymer with narrow molecular weight distribution is facilely obtained.

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      Pd(II)-catalyzed base-free oxidative homocoupling of fluorene diboronic acid ester: A new approach for the synthesis of π-conjugated polymers (pages 4098–4101)

      Chao Yuan, Jia Hong, Yanmei Liu, Hua Lai and Qiang Fang

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24852

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      A new route, Pd(II)-catalyzed base-free oxidative homocoupling, has been successfully used for the synthesis of polyfluorene. Using only diboronic esters and a stable Pd(II) catalyst in the absence of base can greatly simplify the synthetic condition of conjugated polymers.

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