Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 50 Issue 2

15 January 2012

Volume 50, Issue 2

Pages i–iv, 199–408

  1. Cover Image

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    3. Articles
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      Cover Image, Volume 50, Issue 2 (pages i–ii)

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25862

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      Suitable in vitro models for investigating the nanometer-scale safety of drug delivery systems intended for intravenous injection are presented on page 217 by Andreas M. Nyström and colleagues. The image depicts a macrophage consuming polymer micelles constructed from a dendritic linear hybrid material that is releasing the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin intended for breast cancer therapy. For intravenous-injected drug delivery systems, the first line of immunological defense the particles will meet in vivo are the macrophages, suggesting that these are a good candidate model for toxicity testing. In this work primary cells from healthy blood donors are utilized to evaluate nanoparticle toxicity.

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      Inside Cover, Volume 50, Issue 2 (pages iii–iv)

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25863

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      The image shows a polarized optical microscopy (POM) (20×) image of a [5,5′]-diphenyl-[2,2′]-bithiophene (PTTP) substituted methacrylate. As presented by Zhaokang Hu, Boyi Fu, Avishek Aiyar, and Elsa Reichmanis on page 199, crystallites with a domain size in the micrometer range are consistently observed for a sublimed HPTTPEM film by both POM and atomic force microscopy (AFM), indicative of the strong dependence of the formation of a liquid crystalline phase on parameters such as chemical structure, temperature, and substrate surface. The chemical structure of HPTTPEM is superimposed on the micrograph image. The methacrylate monomers are further polymerized to afford graft polymethacrylates for organic thin-film transistor applications.

  2. Articles

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    3. Articles
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    1. Synthesis and characterization of graft polymethacrylates containing conducting diphenyldithiophene for organic thin-film transistors (pages 199–206)

      Zhaokang Hu, Boyi Fu, Avishek Aiyar and Elsa Reichmanis

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.24957

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      A series of [5,5″]-diphenyl-[5,5″]-dithiophene (PTTP)-modified methacrylates has been synthesized and free radically polymerized to form graft polymethacrylates with pendant semiconducting PTTP segments. Both the PTTP alkyl side chain and spacer between the semiconductor and methacrylate units significantly affected the reactivity of the monomers towards polymerization, as well as the resultant graft polymer physical properties including solubility, morphology, and electrochemical and electrical properties. Typical field- effect mobilities on the order of 10−5 cm2 V−1 s−1 were observed for all the PTTP monomers in air, which was attributed to their crystalline phase as revealed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies.

    2. Side chain crosslinking of aromatic polyethers for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell applications (pages 207–216)

      Andrea Vöge, Valadoula A. Deimede and Joannis K. Kallitsis

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25006

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      Aromatic polyethers bearing pyridine units in the main chain and side chain cross-linkable hydroxyl and propargyl groups have been synthesized and investigated as potential PEMs in high temperature fuel cells. Covalently crosslinked membranes have been obtained either by direct crosslinking of hydroxyl groups with decafluorobiphenyl as crosslinker or by further functionalization of hydroxyl groups to the propargyl analog, followed by thermal treatment. Crosslinked membranes showed improved mechanical and thermal properties as well as acceptable doping levels.

    3. Linear-dendritic polymeric amphiphiles as carriers of doxorubicin—In vitro evaluation of biocompatibility and drug delivery (pages 217–226)

      Zhihua Wu, Xianghui Zeng, Yuning Zhang, Neus Feliu, Pontus Lundberg, Bengt Fadeel, Michael Malkoch and Andreas M. Nyström

      Version of Record online: 5 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25008

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      This study focused on chemotherapeutic delivery vehicles constructed from four different amphiphilic linear-dendritic hybrid block copolymers, sequestering doxorubicin in their core. After drug loading, these constructs were found to deliver an efficient dose of drugs, resulting in significant killing of breast cancer cells in vitro. Kinetic studies indicated that the drug formulation in the polymer micelles slowed down the cell uptake compared with the nonformulated drug, but similar efficacy in viability reduction could be found. This suggests that these linear-dendritic hybrid materials have a beneficial effect on treatment efficacy and is an interesting architecture for drug delivery systems.

    4. Covalently stabilized vesicles derived from amphiphilic multiarm star polymers: Preparation, characterization, and their capability of hosting different polarity of guests (pages 227–236)

      Peng-Fei Cao, Rong-Xu Zhao, Lin Li, Wen-Wen Yang, Fa Cheng, Yu Chen, Cong-Hua Lu and Shi-Chun Jiang

      Version of Record online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25015

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      Novel covalently stabilized vesicles (CSVs) were prepared through the self-assembly and subsequent cross-linking of amphiphilic multi-arm star polymers. These CSVs could accommodate both apolar and cationic water-soluble guests using its hydrophobic arms and void core, respectively.

    5. Thermal and spectral stability of electroluminescent hyperbranched copolymers containing tetraphenylthiophene-quinoline-triphenylamine moieties (pages 237–249)

      Ya-Ting Tsai, Chung-Tin Lai, Rong-Hong Chien, Jin-Long Hong and An-Chi Yeh

      Version of Record online: 14 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25020

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      Photos clearly showed that the bright green yellow light emitted from devices with the HB-1 and HB-four emitting layers remained essentially un-altered despite the whole assemblies had been annealed at the respective high temperatures of 200 and 300 °C for 4 h. Therefore, it is safe to conclude that the EL spectra of the PLEDs based on the HB-1 and HB-4 copolymers are highly stable.

    6. Conjugated polymers based on dicarboxylic imide-substituted isothianaphthene and their applications in solar cells (pages 250–260)

      Hairong Li, Shuangyong Sun, Teddy Salim, Swarnalatha Bomma, Andrew C. Grimsdale and Yeng Ming Lam

      Version of Record online: 14 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25021

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      This work explores novel low-bandgap polymers containing a substituted isothianaphthene unit and their evaluation as electron-donating components in bulk heterojunction solar cells. An efficiency of 1.6% is achieved from the best devices, which is the highest yet reported for an isothianaphthene-based polymer.

    7. Chemical modification of poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate-co-maleic anhydride) for cathodic electrodepositions (pages 261–270)

      Simona Percec, Laurie Howe, Jing Li and Stephen Bair

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25025

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      Chemical modification of poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate-co–maleic anhydride) was carried out with mixtures of oleylamine and ethanolamine in the presence of hindered amine catalysts. Aqueous dispersions of amide modified polymer were electro-deposited cathodically on phosphated zinc cold rolled steel. The films obtained exhibit high resistance to fracture and high recovery as a result of chemical modification with oleylamine that induced an internal plasticization through the long side chains that increased segmental mobility of the modified polymer.

    8. Molecular engineering of conjugated polymers for solar cells and field-effect transistors: Side-chain versus main-chain electron acceptors (pages 271–279)

      Dong Wook Chang, Seo-Jin Ko, Gi-Hwan Kim, Seo-Yoon Bae, Jin Young Kim, Liming Dai and Jong-Beom Baek

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25026

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      Two model polymers with the same chemical composition except the location of acceptor, that is, side-chain (S-polymer) or main-chain (M-polymer), have been synthesized. Better performaces in polymer solar cells (PSCs) and field-effect transistor (FETs) were obtained from M-polymer, due to longer effective conjugation length and more coplanar structure. This study provides important insights into the design of ideal structure-–property relationships for conjugated polymers in FETs and PSCs.

    9. Hyperbranched copolymer micelles as delivery vehicles of doxorubicin in breast cancer cells (pages 280–288)

      Xianghui Zeng, Yuning Zhang, Zhihua Wu, Pontus Lundberg, Michael Malkoch and Andreas M. Nyström

      Version of Record online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25027

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      Four types of drug nanoparticles (NPs) based on amphiphilic hyperbranched block copolymers were developed for the delivery of the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin to breast cancer cells. These carriers have their hydrophobic interior layer composed of the hyperbranched aliphatic polyester, Boltorn® H30 or Boltorn® H40, while the outer hydrophilic shell was composed of about 5 poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) segments. Flow cytometry and confocal scanning laser microscopy studies indicated that the cancer cells could internalize the DOX-loaded H30-PEG10k NPs, which contributed to the sustained drug release, and induced more apoptosis than free DOX did.

    10. Water-soluble polymer-grafted platinum nanoparticles for the subsequent binding of enzymes. synthesis and SANS (pages 289–296)

      François Gal, Henri Perez, Vincent Noel and Geraldine Carrot

      Version of Record online: 14 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25030

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      Hybrid nanostructures have been elaborated from elementary building units based on polymer-grafted platinum nanoparticles obtained from SI-ATRP. The polymer corona has been subsequently hydrolyzed and modified to bind an enzyme (glucose oxidase). The structure of the objects, the molecular weight and grafting density of the polymer chains as well as the grafting of the enzyme, were principally elucidated by small angle neutron scattering.

    11. Design and synthesis of new cationic water-soluble pyrene containing dendrons for DNA sensory applications (pages 297–305)

      Ching-Yi Chen, Yumiko Ito, Yu-Cheng Chiu, Wen-Chung Wu, Tomoya Higashihara, Mitsuru Ueda and Wen-Chang Chen

      Version of Record online: 22 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25031

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      A series of new water-soluble cationic pyrene-dendron derivatives was successfully synthesized and characterized. These new dendrons with the quaternized amino moieties at the periphery and pyrene groups at the core were designed for DNA detection. The dendrons showed high and rapid fluorescence response upon the addition of pDNA, which was strongly dependent on the size and hydrophobicity of the dendrons.

    12. A new sequence isomer of AB-polybenzimidazole for high-temperature PEM fuel cells (pages 306–313)

      Alexander L. Gulledge, Bin Gu and Brian C. Benicewicz

      Version of Record online: 28 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25034

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      The synthesis of a novel diacid monomer, 2,2′-bisbenzimidazole-5,5′-dicarboxylic acid, and its AA-BB polycondensation with 3,3′,4,4′-tetraaminobiphenyl produced a new sequence isomer of AB-polybenzimidazole (AB-PBI) that contained additional 2-2′ and 5-5′ linkages in the polymer backbone. The new isomer, termed i-AB-PBI, was found to have higher conductivities, largely due to its increased stability with high levels of phosphoric acid doping. Membranes formed by the polyphosphoric acid process were found to have increased mechanical stability and overall improved fuel cell performance, when compared to the reported literature on AB-PBI. i-AB-PBI is reported as a promising new material for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

    13. Synthesis of azide-functionalized nanoparticles by microemulsion polymerization and surface modification by click chemistry in aqueous medium (pages 314–328)

      Karima Ouadahi, Emmanuel Allard, Birgit Oberleitner and Chantal Larpent

      Version of Record online: 22 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25035

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      Microemulsion polymerization techniques afford an easy access to stable aqueous suspensions of clickable nanoparticles with tunable densities of azide groups. Surface modification with sparingly soluble alkynes is readily achieved in water in the presence of surfactants.

  3. ArticleS

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    3. Articles
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    1. Synthesis of PNIPAM polymer brushes on reduced graphene oxide based on click chemistry and RAFT polymerization (pages 329–337)

      Yongfang Yang, Xiaohui Song, Liang Yuan, Mao Li, Jinchuan Liu, Rongqin Ji and Hanying Zhao

      Version of Record online: 22 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25036

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      RGO sheets were modified by diazonium salt of propargyl p-aminobenzoate, and alkyne-functionalized RGO sheets were obtained. RAFT chain transfer agent was grafted to the surfaces of RGO sheets by click reaction. PNIPAM on RGO sheets was prepared by RAFT polymerization.

  4. Articles

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    1. Novel amphiphilic block copolymers derived from the selective fluorination and sulfonation of poly(styrene-block-1,3-cyclohexadiene) (pages 338–345)

      Tianzi Huang, Jamie M. Messman, Kunlun Hong and Jimmy W. Mays

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25037

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      Novel amphiphilic diblock copolymers were synthesized by selective fluorination of poly(cyclohexadiene) blocks and sulfonation of polystyrene blocks. These block copolymers were solvent cast into thin films and phase separation was clearly observed by AFM. It is thought that the combination of semiflexible partially fluorinated blocks and charged flexible blocks may lead to interesting morphologies.

    2. Polymer–TiO2 composite nanorattles via RAFT-mediated emulsion polymerization (pages 346–352)

      Duc Nguyen, Chris Such and Brian Hawkett

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25038

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      Amphiphilic macro-RAFT copolymers were used as both pigment stabilizers and chain transfer agents in the preparation of polymer/titanium dioxide composite nanorattles via disperse phase polymerization.

    3. The effects of dopant acids on structure and properties of poly(o-methoxyaniline) (pages 353–361)

      Xiao Wang, Sudip Ray, Marija Gizdavic-Nikolaidis and Allan J. Easteal

      Version of Record online: 28 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25039

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      Protonic acid-doped and undoped poly(o-methoxyaniline) (POMA) were chemically synthesized using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant. Dopants have effective control over the particle morphology, which in turn affects the free radical scavenging ability of the products. Nanofibers grew on the particle surface of POMA when hydrochloric acid (HCl) was used as dopant, while microspherical particles were formed when no dopant was present in the reaction medium, with some hollow structures and very small nano-nodules on the surface.

    4. Facile synthesis of poly(ether carbonate)s via copolymerization of CO2 and propylene oxide under combinatorial catalyst of rare earth ternary complex and double metal cyanide complex (pages 362–370)

      Yanlei Dong, Xianhong Wang, Xiaojiang Zhao and Fosong Wang

      Version of Record online: 28 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25040

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      Poly(ether carbonate)s with adjustable carbonate content from 57.8 to 97.1% were synthesized conveniently via copolymerization of CO2 and propylene oxide under combinatorial catalyst of rare earth ternary complex(RET) and double metal cyanide complex(DMC), it was found that the thermal and viscoelastic performances of PPCs showed great dependence on carbonate content.

    5. Narrow band gap D–A copolymer of indacenodithiophene and diketopyrrolopyrrole with deep HOMO level: Synthesis and application in field-effect transistors and polymer solar cells (pages 371–377)

      Xiaochen Wang, Hao Luo, Yeping Sun, Maojie Zhang, Xiaoyu Li, Gui Yu, Yunqi Liu, Yongfang Li and Haiqiao Wang

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25042

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      A new alternating D-A copolymer, PIDT–DPP, with alkyl substituted indacenodithiophene (IDT) as donor unit, and diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) as acceptor unit, was designed and synthesized. The polymer exhibited a broad absorption band from 350 to 900 nm with an absorption peak centered at 735 nm. The highest FET hole mobility of PIDT–DPP reached 0.065 cm2 V−1 s−1 with an on/off ratio of 4.6 × 105. The power conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction solar cell based on PIDT–DPP was 1.76% with a high open circuit voltage of 0.88 V.

    6. Push–Pull archetype of reduced graphene oxide functionalized with polyfluorene for nonvolatile rewritable memory (pages 378–387)

      Bin Zhang, Yu Chen, Gang Liu, Li-Qun Xu, Junneng Chen, Chun-Xiang Zhu, Koon-Gee Neoh and En-Tang Kang

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25043

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      A solution-processable PFTPA-convalently grafted reduced graphene oxide (RGO-PFTPA) was synthesized by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylide. The switch-on voltage of the as-fabricated memory device was around −1.4 V, and the ON/OFF-state current ratio was more than 103.

    7. Cascade hole transport in efficient green phosphorescent light-emitting devices achieved by layer-by-layer solution deposition using photocrosslinkable-conjugated polymers containing oxetane side-chain moieties (pages 388–399)

      Jicheol Shin, Hyun Ah Um, Min Ju Cho, Tae Wan Lee, Kyung Hwan Kim, Jung-Il Jin, Seogshin Kang, Taehan Park, Sung Hoon Joo, Joong Hwan Yang and Dong Hoon Choi

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25044

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      Two photoreactive polymers were synthesized using 2,7-(or 3,6-)-dibromo-9-(6-((3-methyloxetan-3-yl)methoxy)hexyl)-9H-carbazole) and 2,4-dimethyl-N,N-bis(4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl)aniline via a Suzuki coupling reaction. Without the use of a conventional hole injection layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/(polystyrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), the resulting green light-emitting device (K-4) bearing PVK: 5-4-tert-butylphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD):Ir(Cz-ppy)3 exhibited a maximum external quantum efficiency of 9.69%; this corresponds to a luminous efficiency of 29.57 cd/A for the device configuration ITO/POx-I/POx-II/PVK:PBD:Ir(Cz-ppy)3/TAZ/Alq3/LiF/Al.

    8. Synthesis of thermo-responsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam)-containing block copolymers by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (pages 400–408)

      Marie Hurtgen, Ji Liu, Antoine Debuigne, Christine Jerome and Christophe Detrembleur

      Version of Record online: 28 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.25045

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      Thermo-responsive, amphiphilic and double hydrophilic copolymers based on poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) were prepared by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization. Poly(vinyl acetate)-b-PNVCL copolymers were shown to form micelles in water with a hydrophilic PNVCL corona. The selective hydrolysis of the poly(vinyl acetate) sequence led to the novel double hydrophilic poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-PNVCL copolymers. Upon heating, PNVCL turned hydrophobic and induced the formation of aggregates stabilized by the hydrophilic poly(vinyl alcohol) segments. These original well-defined thermo-responsive copolymers could be used for the design of smart materials for triggered drug delivery.

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