Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 50 Issue 22

15 November 2012

Volume 50, Issue 22

Pages i–iv, 4589–4803

  1. Cover Image

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    3. Rapid Communication
    4. Articles
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      Cover Image, Volume 50, Issue 22 (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26390

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      A new norbornene comonomer bearing an antioxidant functionality (i.e., 2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol) is synthesized and used for the preparation of ethylene based copolymers with a covalently linked stabilizer, as presented by Caterina Viglianisi and colleagues on page 4647. A NMR guided structural investigation of the exo-endo ratio in both the monomer and the copolymer is reported in the paper that opens the way to the use of these copolymers as non-releasing macromolecular antioxidant additives for application in food and/or drug packaging. The image describes the polymer with the antioxidant that behaves as a barrier able to inhibit or retard radical degradation processes caused by the interactions with molecular oxygen and UV radiation.

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      Inside Cover, Volume 50, Issue 22 (pages iii–iv)

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26391

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      High-performance polymer/carbon nanotube composites are prepared via condensation of N-silylated diamino terminated precursor of the polymer with acid chloride functionalized carbon nanotubes and subsequent thermal cyclodehydration, as presented on page 4732 by Qing Wang and colleagues. Chemical grafting of carbon nanotubes with high-performance polymers leads to various interesting morphologic features. The transmission electron microscopic image shows the existence of the helical structures of the carbon nanotubes in the composites. In addition to excellent thermal stability and mechanical strength, the composites exhibit a significant improvement in the dielectric constant with the inclusion of carbon nanotubes.

  2. Rapid Communication

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    3. Rapid Communication
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      One-pot synthesis of amphiphilic diblock copolymers of poly(styrene) and poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) by the direct combination of reverse iodine transfer polymerization (RITP) and cationic ring-opening polymerization (CROP) processes (pages 4589–4593)

      David Rayeroux, Vincent Lapinte and Patrick Lacroix-Desmazes

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26291

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      A iodo-terminated polystyrene (PS-I) synthesized by reverse iodine transfer polymerization (RITP) was directly used as macroinitiator in the cationic ring-opening polymerization of 2-methyl-2-oxazoline to afford a water-soluble diblock copolymer. This is the first example of combination of RITP and CROP in macromolecular engineering.

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      Domino synthesis of star-shaped polymers based on monomer selective living cationic polymerization: Highly controlled star polymer formation (pages 4594–4598)

      Shokyoku Kanaoka, Mayuka Yamada, Jun Ashida, Arihiro Kanazawa and Sadahito Aoshima

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26304

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      Seamless star polymer synthesis via polymer-linking reaction was achieved based on highly monomer-selective living cationic polymerization. First, a vinyl ether was polymerized exclusively from its mixture with a styrenic-type divinyl compound, and then the ensuing in situ reaction of the divinyl compound with the resulting linear living polymers produced a star polymer with well-defined structures in very high yield. This is the first example of highly controlled one-step synthesis of star polymers via the polymer-linking reaction.

  3. Articles

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    4. Articles
    1. Synthesis of snowman-like magnetic/nonmagnetic nanocomposite asymmetric particles via seeded emulsion polymerization initiated by γ-ray radiation (pages 4599–4611)

      Feng-Wei Wang, Hua-Rong Liu, Jin-De Zhang, Xiang-Tian Zhou and Xing-Yuan Zhang

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26274

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      Snowman-like superparamagnetic/nonmagnetic nanocomposite asymmetric particles with amphiphilic properties have been successfully prepared via seeded emulsion polymerization initiated by γ-ray radiation. Raspberry-like magnetic nanocomposite particles are used as the seeds in the system; the relative size of the seed part and the extrusive PS part can be effectively tuned by simply changing the added amount of 2-butanone.

    2. Organic solvent-free catalytic hydrogenation of diene-based polymer nanoparticles in latex form. Part II. Kinetic analysis and mechanistic study (pages 4612–4627)

      Hui Wang, Lijuan Yang, Stephen Scott, Qinmin Pan and Garry L. Rempel

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26276

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      Using nanoscale diene-based polymer particles, for example, below 20 nm, as the substrate, the hydrogenation rate of polymer latex can be increased dramatically in achieving a high conversion of 95% in the absence of organic solvent while a quite low level of catalyst loading is required. This present research provides a comprehensive study to appreciate the underlying chemistry of catalytic latex hydrogenation of dine-based polymer nanoparticles and may offer exciting avenues in the future for the realization of a commercial process for “green” latex hydrogenation.

    3. Biobased-waterborne homopolymers from oleic acid derivatives (pages 4628–4637)

      Mónica Moreno, Monika Goikoetxea and María J. Barandiaran

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26287

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      Waterborne biobased polymeric materials with potential applications as coatings were produced by using oleic acid. To preserve the double bonds of the acid during the synthesis, as well as the presence of the catalyst used during the monomer functionalization were key points to obtain films with improved mechanical properties.

    4. Conformationally restricted linear polyurethanes from acetalized sugar-based monomers (pages 4638–4646)

      Belén Begines, Francisca Zamora, Elena Benito, Mª de Gracia García-Martín and Juan A. Galbis

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26293

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      New linear conformationally restricted polyurethanes were prepared by polyaddition of bicyclic acetalized sugar-based-monomers to diisocyanates (HMDI or MDI). The presence of the bicyclic acetalized sugar units in the polyurethane chain improves the thermal stability, increases the Tg, and apparently inhibits the crystallizability of the polyurethanes, as compared with their acyclic analogs. Deacetalization of the polyurethanes containing di-O-isopropylidene-D-mannitol units yielded the free-hydroxylated polymers, which showed an enhanced hydrophilicity and degradability.

    5. Ethylene/hindered phenol substituted norbornene copolymers: Synthesis and NMR structural determination (pages 4647–4655)

      Caterina Viglianisi, Stefano Menichetti, Giulio Assanelli, Maria Carmela Sacchi, Incoronata Tritto and Simona Losio

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26270

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      Copolymers of ethylene with an antioxidant phenolic functionalized norbornene comonomer have been prepared and their structure fully determined by NMR. These novel materials can be used as non-releasing macromolecular antioxidant additives for specific application in safe food and/or drug packaging.

    6. Organic solvent-free catalytic hydrogenation of diene-based polymer nanoparticles in latex form: Part I. Preparation of nano-substrate (pages 4656–4665)

      Hui Wang, Qinmin Pan and Garry L. Rempel

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26277

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      Poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile) nanoparticles below 20 nm were synthesized in the semibatch emulsion polymerization system using the Gemini surfactant as the emulsifier. An enhanced decomposition rate of initiator APS was achieved even under the low temperature of 50°C which is attributed to the acidic initiation environment by using GS 12-3-12 as the emulsifier. The produced latices show a comparable stability to a conventional microemulsion while the required surfactant/monomer and surfactant/water weight ratios are much lower than those of the microemulsion system.

    7. Synthesis of bicyclic bis(γ-butyrolactone) derivatives bearing sulfide moieties and their alternating copolymers with epoxide (pages 4666–4673)

      Sousuke Ohsawa, Kazuhide Morino, Atsushi Sudo and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26278

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      A bicyclic bis(γ-butyrolactone) bearing isopropenyl group 1 was efficiently used as a precursor for synthesizing bislactones 2 bearing sulfide moieties via radical addition reaction of thiols to the isopropenyl group. 2 underwent the anionic alternating copolymerization with epoxide to afford the corresponding polyesters 3 bearing sulfide moieties in the side chains.

    8. Synthesis and properties of water-soluble azlactone copolymers (pages 4674–4685)

      Casandra M. Gardner, Carla E. Brown and Harald D. H. Stöver

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26281

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      Several water-soluble reactive azlactone copolymers were synthesized and their rates of hydrolysis were compared under physiological conditions. Water-soluble azlactone copolymers are of interest for biomedical applications, as they have the potential to form covalently crosslinked networks and immobilize biomolecules in the presence of living cells. How quickly they hydrolyze under physiological conditions will dictate theamount of time available for crosslinking and functionalization.

    9. Tuning photovoltaic performance of 9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-5,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)-2,3-biphenylthieno[3,4-b]pyrazine copolymeric derivatives by attaching additional donor units in pendant phenyl ring (pages 4686–4694)

      Jianmin Li, Xianping Deng, Zhiyong Zhang, Yafei Wang, Yu Liu, Keqi He, Ying Huang, Qiang Tao, Lixia Quan and Weiguo Zhu

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26284

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      A class of 9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-5,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)-2,3-biphenylthieno [3,4-b]pyrazine copolymeric derivatives (PFO-3ThPz-D) attaching additional donor (D) units in the pendant phenyl ring with a novel D-Aequation imageD structure was synthesized and investigated. PFO-3ThPz-Tpa-based BHJ-PSC exhibited the best photovoltaic properties with PCE of 3.08% and Jsc of 10.3 mA/cm2. This work demonstrated that attaching donor units into the D-A-based copolymeric side-chain is a simple and effective method to improve the photovoltaic properties for these D-Aequation imageD-based copolymers.

    10. Ni(II) and Pd(II) complexes bearing benzocyclohexane–ketoarylimine for copolymerization of norbornene with 5-norbornene-2-carboxylic ester (pages 4695–4704)

      Xiaohui He, Yueman Liu, Lu Chen, Yiwang Chen and Defu Chen

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26288

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      Mt(benzocyclohexane-–ketoarylimino)2 {Mt(bchkai)2: Mt=Ni, Pd; bchkai=C10H8(O)CN(Ar)CH3; Ar=naphthyl, fluoryl} are synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray technique. The late transition metals complexes are effective for copolymerization NB with NB-COOCH3 in relatively high activities. The copolymers of NB and NB-COOCH3 exhibited better solubility and mechanical properties. The Ni(II) catalytic systems shows higher activity than Pd(II) catalytic systems. The catalysts containing C10H8(O)C[HN(naphthyl)]CH3 ligand exhibit lower catalytic activity than the catalysts containing C10H8(O)C[HN(fluoryl)]CH3 ligand.

    11. Facile synthesis of ABCDE-type H-shaped quintopolymers by combination of ATRP, ROP, and click chemistry and their potential applications as drug carriers (pages 4705–4716)

      Huanhuan Liu, Shixian Li, Meijing Zhang, Wei Shao and Youliang Zhao

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26285

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      Well-defined (PEG)(PCL)PSt(PAA)(PLLA) H-shaped quintopolymer was efficiently synthesized and applied for in vitro release of doxorubicin. Azide-functionalized PEG-PCL-PSt star terpolymer and alkyne-in-chain-functionalized PtBA-b-PLLA diblock copolymer were subjected to successive click reaction and hydrolysis to give the target copolymer. Cytotoxicity studies revealed H-shaped copolymer aggregates were nontoxic and biocompatible, and drug loading and release properties of various copolymer aggregates were significantly affected by macromolecular architecture, chemical composition, and pH value. The pH-sensitive quintopolymer aggregates have a potential as controlled delivery vehicles.

    12. Alternating copolymers of hexafluoroisobutylene with vinyl trifluoroacetate and vinyl pentafluorobenzoate (pages 4717–4720)

      Frantisek Mikes, Hongxiang Teng, Yasuhiro Koike and Yoshiyuki Okamoto

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26290

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      Copolymerizations of hexafluoroisobutylene (HFIB) with vinyl pentafluorobenzoate (VPFB) and vinyl trifluoroacetate (VTFA) were carried out. The results indicated that these copolymers have alternating structures.

    13. Synthesis, structural characterization, and olefin polymerization behavior of vanadium(III) complexes bearing bidentate phenoxy-phosphine ligands (pages 4721–4731)

      Sen-Wang Zhang, Ling-Pan Lu, Bai-Xiang Li and Yue-Sheng Li

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26292

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      A series of new vanadium complexes bearing one or two phenoxy-phosphine ligands have been synthesized, characterized, and investigated as the catalyst precursors for ethylene (co)polymerization.

    14. Synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotube/fluorine-containing poly(p-phenylene benzoxazole) composites exhibiting greatly enhanced dielectric constants (pages 4732–4739)

      Qixin Zhuang, Xiaoyang Mao, Zhong Xie, Xiaoyun Liu, Qing Wang, Yi Chen and Zhewen Han

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26294

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      High-performance polymer/carbon nanotube composites with different nanotube contents have been prepared via condensation of N-silylated diamino terminated precursor of the polymer with acid chloride-functionalized carbon nanotubes and subsequent thermal cyclodehydration.

    15. Single-pulse pulsed laser polymerization–electron paramagnetic resonance investigations into the termination kinetics of n-butyl acrylate macromonomers (pages 4740–4748)

      Johannes Barth, Michael Buback, Christopher Barner-Kowollik, Thomas Junkers and Gregory T. Russell

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26295

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      Model mid-chain acrylate radicals were generated by addition of primary initiating radicals to n-BA macromonomer. The termination of these radicals was investigated via single-pulse pulsed laser polymerization–electron paramagnetic resonance experiments, over the timescale of which the radicals do not propagate. Thus, the measured kt values should be indicative of those for actual acrylate mid-chain radicals (MCRs), which are essentially impossible to isolate for kinetic study via conventional experiments. As shown, the MCRs were found to display typical termination behavior without any anomalies.

    16. Isomeric effect of sulfonated poly(arylene ether)s comprising dihydroxynaphthalene on properties for polymer electrolyte membranes (pages 4749–4755)

      Yoshimitsu Sakaguchi, Kota Kitamura and Satoshi Takase

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26296

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      Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) made of sulfonated poly(arylene ether)s comprising three dihydroxynaphthalene isomers (2,6-, 2,7-, and 1,5-) were prepared, and structural effect on the membrane properties was compared. Three copolymers showed almost the same proton conductivity; however, swelling in water increased with the following order: 1,5- < 2,6- < 2,7. These tendencies show that higher rigidity or energy barrier for conformational change of polymer chain gives better performance of PEM for fuel cells with superior dimensional stability.

    17. Synthesis of networked polymer based on ring-opening addition reaction of 1,3-benzoxazine with resorcinol (pages 4756–4761)

      Hiroaki Oie, Atsushi Mori, Atsushi Sudo and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26299

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      At ambient temperature, the networked polymer was synthesized from a polymer bearing benzoxazine moieties in the side chain using 2-methylresorcinol as a cross linker according to the following new finding that N-n-propyl-benzoxazine underwent the ring-opening addition reaction with 2-methylresorcinol, leading to the quantitative formation of their 2:1 adduct.

    18. Influence of the Z-group on the RAFT-mediated polymerizations in nanoreactors (pages 4762–4771)

      David Valade, Yujung Jeon, Stefanie Kessel and Michael J. Monteiro

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26300

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      The influence of the RAFT end group of a macro-chain transfer agent (mCTA) on the abinitio emulsion polymerization of styrene (STY) was studied through the comparison of poly(dimethylacrylamide)-b-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PDMA-b-PNIPAM) mCTA bearing either a butyltrithiocarbonate or a dodecyltrithiocarbonate (DTTC) group. Differences in aggregation properties were noticed, while emulsion polymerizations of STY in the presence of PDMA-b-PNIPAM-DTTC mCTA were fast and well controlled, leading to polymers with narrow molecular weight and particle size distributions.

    19. Synthesis of graft copolymers onto styrenic polymer backbone via “grafting from” raft process (pages 4772–4782)

      Prakash Babu Rajendran and Dhamodharan Raghavachari

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26301

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      Graft copolymers such as polystyrene-graft-polymethyl methacrylate (PS-g-PMMA), polystyrene-graft-poly(isobornyl acrylate), polystyrene-graft-poly[2-(acetoacetoxy)ethyl methacrylate] (PS-g-PAEMA), and poly(para-methoxystyrene)-graft-polystyrene were synthesized from PS and poly(para-methoxystyrene) backbones via RAFT method in a R-group approach. The morphology of PS-g-PMMA in THF showed island-like features, and PS-g-PAEMA in DMF showed globules and ribbon-like structures, whereas PS-g-PAEMA graft copolymers with Fe(III) in DMF formed globular superstructures.

    20. Unprecedented diverse nanostructures formed by amphiphilic graft copolymer bearing PEO side chains synthesized by ATNRC (pages 4783–4789)

      Yaogong Li, Ming Du, Yongjun Li, Long Sui, Guolin Lu and Xiaoyu Huang

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26302

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      PtBA-g-PEO well-defined amphiphilic graft copolymers synthesized by atom transfer nitroxide radical coupling (ATNRC) reaction show unprecedented diverse nanostructures in the presence of steric bulky tert-butyl groups in every repeating unit of the backbone.

    21. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) esters with reactive functional groups suitable for orthogonal conjugation strategies (pages 4790–4799)

      Aurora Pacini, Marco Caricato, Stefania Ferrari, Doretta Capsoni, Antxon Martínez de Ilarduya, Sebastián Muñoz-Guerra and Dario Pasini

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26363

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      The functionalization of poly(γ-glutamic acid), an emerging biopolymer obtained from renewable resources, into derivatives with reactive functional groups, such as allyl and propargyl esters, is described. Functionalized derivatives can be further elaborated using click chemistries, opening new possibilities for the preparation of new PGGA-based materials with tailored properties.

    22. N–C coupling reaction of 4,4′-sulfonylbis(N-phenylaniline) with activated dihalides (pages 4800–4803)

      Aabid A. Mir and Allan S. Hay

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26289

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      Synthesis of 4,4′-sulfonylbis(N-phenylaniline) poly(ether sulphone) polymers are reported via a novel N–C coupling reaction. The –NH group in the 4,4′-sulfonylbis(N-phenylaniline) behaves like a phenolic –OH in the polymerization reaction to afford linear polymers. These polymers are potentially engineering thermoplastics with high Tg and excellent thermostability.

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