Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 51 Issue 12

15 June 2013

Volume 51, Issue 12

Pages i–iv, 2527–2729

  1. Cover Image

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Image
    3. Articles
    4. Note
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Image, Volume 51, Issue 12 (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26725

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      Synthetic glycopolymers containing pendant saccharide moieties are employed as multivalent natural oligosaccharide mimics in many biological and biomedical applications such as macromolecular drugs and drug delivery systems. Besides syntheses, the investigation into lectin-glycopolymer interactions is also vital for the application of glycopolymers. Y. Gou, J. Geng, S.-J. Richards, J. Burns, C. R. Becer, and D. M. Haddleton on page 2588 show that the diversities of binding properties contributed by different clustering parameters can make it possible to define the structures of the multivalent ligands and densities of binding epitopes for specific functions in the lectin-ligand interactions. The cover shows a schematic representation of the glycopolymer-lectin binding.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Inside Cover, Volume 51, Issue 12 (pages iii–iv)

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26726

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      Polyolefins are widely used in daily life, and considerable attention has been paid to produce new polymers with specified functions. Precise, efficient synthesis of polymers containing side-chain functionality in the copolymerization is a promising approach. In this article by W. Apisuk, B. Kitiyanan, H. J. Kim, D. H. Kim, and K. Nomura on page 2581, an efficient introduction of the vinyl group into poly(ethylene-co-styrene) or poly (ethylene-co-1-hexene) is achieved by the incorporation of 3,30-divinylbiphenyl in the ethylene copolymerizations using aryloxo-modified half-titanocene catalysts. The post modification is demonstrated by using the vinyl group. Related reports are also shown on pages 2565 and 2575. (Background: Sunset in Chon Buri, Thailand)

  2. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Image
    3. Articles
    4. Note
    1. Synthesis and photoproperties of Eu(III)-bearing star polymers as luminescent materials (pages 2527–2535)

      Ahmad Kusumaatmaja, Tsuyoshi Ando, Kayo Terada, Shiho Hirohara, Takuya Nakashima, Tsuyoshi Kawai, Takaya Terashima and Masao Tanihara

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26652

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      Eu(III)-bearing star polymers are synthesized in a simple and effective method of one-step introduction by the living radical copolymerization of the Eu(III) complex monomer [Eu(SDPO)] and the divinyl linking monomer ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. A water-soluble Eu(III)-bearing star polymer is obtained using poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as an arm, and is stable in water for 1 month. All Eu(III)-bearing star polymers show red luminescence under UV irradiation.

    2. Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of amorphous polymers based on dithienylbenzothiadiazole-triphenylamine with hexyl side chains on different positions of thienyl groups (pages 2536–2544)

      Takeshi Yasuda, Yuki Shinohara, Takaaki Matsuda, Liyuan Han and Tsutomu Ishi-i

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26667

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      New amorphous dithienylbenzothiadiazole (TBT)-triphenylamine (TPA) polymers are synthesized for application in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (IPCEs) in the region from 550 to 650 nm for the OPV cells prepared using poly(4HTBT-TPA) are higher than those for the OPV cells prepared using poly(3HTBT-TPA) because the absorption spectrum for the poly(4HTBT-TPA) has a slightly red-shifted absorption edge.

    3. Influence of different linkage groups in biphenyl mesogenic core on phase behaviors of mesogen-jacketed liquid crystalline polymers (pages 2545–2554)

      Lan-Ying Zhang and Yang-Fei Zhang

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26662

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      A series of new mesogen-jacketed liquid crystalline (LC) polymers based on a biphenyl mesogenic core with terminal alkyl through different connecting linkage groups are successfully synthesized. Phase transitions and phase structures of the polymers are investigated, and dependence of the phase transformations on their structures is visually found. Polymers with the ether/ester or ether linkage group exhibit an unusual phase behavior with increasing temperature. Tetragonal columnar nematic LC phase developed at high temperatures transforms into an amorphous phase during the cooling process, showing re-entrant phase behaviors. However, polymers with the ester linkage group are not LC even at high temperatures.

    4. Coloring–decoloring behavior of fluoroalkyl end-capped 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid oligomer/acetone composite in methanol (pages 2555–2564)

      Tetsushi Kijima, Masakazu Nishida, Haruhiko Fukaya, Masato Yoshida and Hideo Sawada

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26663

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      In this work, the coloring–decoloring behavior of a new fluorinated oligomer/acetone composite shows good repeatability and consistency. The result is the first example of the retro-aldol polycondensation of acetone under mild conditions.

    5. Efficient terpolymerization of ethylene and styrene with α-olefins by aryloxo-modified half-titanocene-based catalysts and cocatalyst systems (pages 2565–2574)

      Wannida Apisuk, Naohiro Suzuki, Hyun Joon Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Boonyarach Kitiyanan and Kotohiro Nomura

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26637

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      Aryloxo-modified half-titanocenes, Cp′TiCl2(O-2,6-iPr2C6H3) [Cp′ = Cp* (1), tBuC5H4 (2)], catalyze terpolymerization of ethylene and styrene with α-olefin (1-hexene and 1-decene) efficiently in the presence of a cocatalyst, affording high-molecular-weight polymers with unimodal distributions (compositions). The content of each monomer can be controlled by varying the concentration of charged comonomer. Resonances ascribed to styrene and α-olefin repeated insertion are negligible. The terpolymerization with p-methylstyrene in place of styrene also proceeds in the presence of [PhN(H)Me2][B(C6F5)4] and the AliBu3 cocatalyst, affording high-molecular-weight polymers with uniform distributions.

    6. Efficient ethylene/norbornene copolymerization by half-titanocenes containing imidazolin-2-iminato ligands and MAO catalyst systems (pages 2575–2580)

      Wannida Apisuk, Alexandra G. Trambitas, Boonyarach Kitiyanan, Matthias Tamm and Kotohiro Nomura

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26638

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      Half-titanocenes containing imidazolin-2-iminato ligands, CpTiCl2[1,3-tBu2(CHN)2C[DOUBLE BOND]N], exhibit remarkable catalytic activities with better norbornene (NBE) incorporations for ethylene copolymerization with norbornene in the presence of the methylaluminoxane (MAO) cocatalyst. This affords high-molecular-weight copolymers with uniform molecular weight distributions and high NBE contents (high glass transition temperature, Tg = 230–258 °C). The microstructure analysis of the poly(ethylene-co-NBE)s suggests the formation of random copolymers, including two and three NBE repeating units.

    7. Introduction of reactive functionality by the incorporation of divinylbiphenyl in ethylene copolymerization with styrene or 1-hexene using aryloxo-modified half-titanocenes and MAO catalysts (pages 2581–2587)

      Wannida Apisuk, Boonyarach Kitiyanan, Hyun Joon Kim, Dong Hyun Kim and Kotohiro Nomura

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26639

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      The introduction of the vinyl group into poly(ethylene-co-styrene) or poly(ethylene-co−1-hexene) is achieved by the incorporation of 3,3′-divinylbiphenyl (DVBP) in terpolymerization of ethylene, styrene, or 1-hexene with DVBP using aryloxo-modified half-titanocenes, Cp′TiCl2(O−2,6-iPr2C6H3) [Cp′ = Cp*, tBuC5H4, 1,2,4-Me3C5H2], and methylaluminoxane (MAO) catalysts. Efficient comonomer incorporations are achieved by these catalysts, and the content of each comonomer can be varied by its concentration charged. Postpolymerization of styrene is initiated from the vinyl group by treatment with n-BuLi.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A detailed study on understanding glycopolymer library and Con A interactions (pages 2588–2597)

      Yanzi Gou, Jin Geng, Sarah-Jane Richards, James Burns, C. Remzi Becer and D. M. Haddleton

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26646

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      Multivalent carbohydrate interactions play an important role in many biological processes. It is critical to understand and design the optimum glycopolymer structure to interact with the desired lectin. In this study, the binding properties of a glycopolymer library to Con A are investigated via quantitative precipitation assay, turbidimetry assay, inhibitory potency assay, and reversal aggregation assay.

    9. Synthesis of poly(1-oxodimethylene) via oxidation of poly(vinyl alcohol) with a hydrogen peroxide/hydrobromic acid system and metal complexation behavior of poly(1-oxodimethylene) (pages 2598–2605)

      Haruki Kinemuchi and Bungo Ochiai

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26647

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      Poly(1-oxodimethylene) is synthesized via metal free oxidation of poly(vinyl alcohol) with a hydrogen peroxide/hydrobromic acid system. The obtained polymer mainly consists of repeating β-diketone structures with the keto-enol tautomerism tilting toward the enol form. The conjugation is confirmed by IR spectroscopy showing broad absorption of the carbonyl groups at 1597–1712 cm−1. The obtained poly(1-oxodimethylene) forms polymeric metal complexes with Ni and Cu acetates.

    10. Selenium-substituted carbonates as mediators for controlled radical polymerization (pages 2606–2613)

      Jindong Zeng, Zhengbiao Zhang, Jian Zhu, Nianchen Zhou, Zhenping Cheng and Xiulin Zhu

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26648

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      A series of selenium-substituted carbonates control the polymerization of styrene and methyl acrylate, affording a flexible protocol to incorporate selenium into the polymer chain backbone. The treatment of the polymers by oxidation produces “clickable” vinyl-terminated chain ends, which provide the possibility for further functionalization, for example, via a thiol-ene click reaction.

    11. Solvent-assisted anionic ring opening polymerization of glycidol: Toward medium and high molecular weight hyperbranched polyglycerols (pages 2614–2621)

      Muhammad Imran ul-haq, Rajesh A. Shenoi, Donald E. Brooks and Jayachandran N. Kizhakkedathu

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26649

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      A novel method for the synthesis of medium and high molecular weights (50–500 kg/mol) of hyperbranched polyglycerols (HPG) is reported. The influence of various solvents on anionic ring opening polymerization glycidol is investigated. The structure of solvents has a profound effect on polymerization and the molecular weight of HPG formed. The differences in the solvation of the K+ and change in the nucleophilicity of the alkoxide anion in various solvents may be responsible for the observation.

    12. Spotlight Article

      Synthesis and photovoltaic performance of donor–acceptor polymers containing benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene with thienyl substituents (pages 2622–2630)

      Prakash Sista, Ruvini S. Kularatne, Michael E. Mulholland, Mitchell Wilson, Natalie Holmes, Xiaojing Zhou, Paul C. Dastoor, Warwick Belcher, Seth C. Rasmussen, Michael C. Biewer and Mihaela C. Stefan

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26650

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      Three donor–acceptor copolymers are synthesized by Stille coupling polymerization of2,6-(trimethyltin)−4,8-bis(5-dodecylthiophene-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene with 1,3-dibromo-5-hexylthieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione,4,7-dibromo-1,3-benzothiadiazole, and 5,7-dibromo-2,3-didodecylthieno[3,4-b]pyrazine, respectively. The synthesized polymers are tested in bulk heterojunction solar cells as blends with the acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester. The thienopyrroledione donor–acceptor polymer displays a power conversion efficiency of 3.00%, which is increased to 3.86% by application of the additive 1,8-diiodooctane.

    13. Cyclotrimerization of diisocyanates toward high-performance networked polymers with rigid isocyanurate structure: Combination of aromatic and aliphatic diisocyanates for tunable flexibility (pages 2631–2637)

      Masaki Moritsugu, Atsushi Sudo and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26651

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      A series of networked polymers bearing isocyanurate moiety are synthesized by cyclotrimerization of diisocyanates, employing methylene diphenyl 4,4′-diisocyanate and 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate (HMDI) in several feed ratios. In spite of the large difference in intrinsic reactivity between these two diisocyanates, their coannulation proceeds efficiently by using sodium p-toluenesulfinate and 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone as a catalyst and a solvent, respectively. The resulting networked polymers are transparent and exhibit excellent thermal stability. HMDI-rich feed ratios allow for the formation of networked polymers with increased flexibility.

    14. Hybrid inorganic–organic poly(carborane-siloxane-arylacetylene) structural isomers with in-chain aromatics: Synthesis and properties (pages 2638–2650)

      Manoj K. Kolel-Veetil, Dawn D. Dominguez, Christopher A. Klug, Kenan P. Fears, Syed B. Qadri, Daniel Fragiadakis and Teddy M. Keller

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26653

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      Thermo-oxidatively-stable structural isomers m-PCSAA and p-PCSAA have exceptional thermo-oxidative properties similar to PCSA. Their thermal treatment results in thermosets by the cycloadditions of acetylenes and aryls and subsequent formation of disilylmethylene entities. Thermosets of p-PCSAA appear more crystalline than that from m-PCSAA by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The aryl groups in the backbone of the PCSAAs' chains enhance the storage and bulk moduli of their thermosets when compared to that from PCSA. m-PCSAA and p-PCSAA exhibit segmental relaxation peaks, α, above their glass transition temperatures, with p-PCSAA showing a broader peak with a slower relaxation rate than that of m-PCSAA.

    15. One-step synthesis of block-graft copolymers via simultaneous reversible-addition fragmentation chain transfer and ring-opening polymerization using a novel macroinitiator (pages 2651–2659)

      Temel Öztürk, Mehmet Nuri Atalar, Melahat Göktaş and Baki Hazer

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26654

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      Epichlorohydrin is polymerized by a cationic ring-opening mechanism. A novel reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) and ring-opening polymerization (ROP) agent is synthesized by the reaction of potassium ethyl xanthogenate and polyepichorohydrin. A set of one-pot synthesis and RAFT and ROP polymerization conditions of the block-graft copolymers are evaluated. The proposed procedure for the preparation of block-graft copolymers is simple and efficient. The block length can be adjusted by varying the monomer and initiator concentrations.

    16. Spotlight Article

      Optimization of direct arylation polymerization conditions for the synthesis of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (pages 2660–2668)

      Andrey E. Rudenko, Calvin A. Wiley, John F. Tannaci and Barry C. Thompson

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26655

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      Direct arylation polymerization is known to produce β-defects in conjugated polymer chains. These defects make polymer properties different from polymers produced by methods such as Stille, Rieke, or GRIM. It is demonstrated for the case of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) that DArP conditions can be tuned to control the amount of defects and produce P3HT with properties remarkably similar to those of Stille P3HT.

    17. Copolymers of ethylene and sulfonated norbornene for proton exchange membranes (pages 2669–2676)

      Jean-Christophe Daigle, Vincent Dube-Savoie, Ana C. Tavares and Jerome P. Claverie

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26656

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      Palladium-catalyzed polymerization is used to prepare copolymers of ethylene and 5- exo norbornene methyl alcohol, which are then transformed into polymers bearing thioacetate pendant groups. Using a green oxidation method that uses H2O2 as the oxidant, sulfonated polymers can be prepared and processed as freestanding films. These ionomers are thermally stable, have a low water uptake, and have increasing proton conductivities up to 110 °C, indicating that these materials are interesting candidates for the preparation of fuel cell membranes.

    18. Stimuli-responsive diblock copolymer brushes via combination of “click chemistry” and living radical polymerization (pages 2677–2685)

      Serkan Demirci, Selin Kinali-Demirci and Tuncer Caykara

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26657

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      Stimuli-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-block−4-vinylbenzoic acid) brushes are synthesized by the combination of click reaction, single-electron transfer-living radical polymerization, reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization, and the grafting-from strategy.

    19. Synthesis of a benzoxazine with precisely two phenolic OH linkages and the properties of its high-performance copolymers (pages 2686–2694)

      Ching Hsuan Lin, Yu Ren Feng, Kang Hong Dai, Hou Chien Chang and Tzong Yuan Juang

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26661

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      A phenolic OH-containing benzoxazine (F-ap), which cannot be directly synthesized from the condensation of bisphenol F, aminophenol, and formaldehyde by traditional procedures, is successfully prepared in an alternative synthetic approach.

    20. Spotlight Article

      Synthesis of imidazole-terminated hyperbranched polymers with POSS-branching points and their pH responsive and coordination properties (pages 2695–2701)

      Yasuyuki Irie and Kensuke Naka

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26664

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      An imidazole-terminated hyperbranched polymer with octafunctional POSS-branching units (POSS-HYPAM-Im) is prepared, and their solution properties are studied. The transmittance of the POSS-HYPAM-Im solution drastically decreases when the solution pH is greater than 8.2. The coordination modes of POSS-HYPAM-Im shift from the Cu2+–N4 complex to the Cu2+–N2O2 complex through intermediate coordination states. These results suggest that the terminal function groups in POSS-HYPAM-Im are isolated and inhibit the movement of neighboring branches.

    21. One-pot synthesis of composite microspheres with core-shell structure (pages 2702–2708)

      Yi Gong, Qing Lin Liu, Ai Mei Zhu and Qiu Gen Zhang

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26665

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      A novel one-pot synthesis of thermoresponsive magnetic nanoparticles in a core-shell structure with the aid of the temperature sensitivity of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) is presented.

    22. Facile synthesis of high-performance poly(pyrrolone imide)s from an unsymmetric phosphinated triamine (pages 2709–2715)

      Ching Hsuan Lin, Chen Ming Li, Chin Kuang Hsu, Hou Chien Chang and Tzong Yuan Juang

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26666

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      Generally, poly(pyrrolone imide)s (PPyIs) are prepared by copolymerizing tetraamine/diamine and dianhydride. In this work, PPyIs are prepared by the reaction of dianhydrides with an unsymmetric phosphinated triamine, which is prepared by a facile, one-pot procedure. The resulting PPyIs are tough and creasable, and display higher Tg, dimensional stability, and thermal stability than those of phosphinated polyimides with a similar structure.

    23. Radical copolymerization of alkyl cyclobutenecarboxylates fused with cycloaliphatic framework with alkyl (meth)acrylates (pages 2716–2724)

      Eiji Ihara, Takafumi Ueda, Kotaro Yokoyama, Yuka Fujiwara, Kenzo Inoue, Tomomichi Itoh, Hiroaki Shimomoto, Hikaru Momose and Mitsufumi Nodono

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26668

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      Radical copolymerization behavior of alkyl cyclobutenecarboxylate-derivatives and related norbornene-derived compounds is described. A variety of alkyl cyclobutenecarboxylates fused with a cycloaliphatic framework are radically copolymerized with nBA to afford random copolymers, and terpolymerized with alkyl methacrylates having bulky ester groups. Likewise, a mixture of related norbornene-derived compounds are copolymerized with alkyl (meth)acrylates to afford copolymers incorporating fused norbornane frameworks, exhibiting a raised Tg in the copolymers.

  3. Note

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Image
    3. Articles
    4. Note
    1. Synthesis of well-defined aromatic polyamide-graft-poly(tetrahydrofuran) by chain-growth condensation polymerization of macromonomer (pages 2725–2729)

      Ryuji Sugi, Daisuke Tate and Tsutomu Yokozawa

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26671

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      Well-defined aromatic polyamide grafted with poly(tetrahydrofuran) [poly(THF)] is obtained by the chain-growth condensation polymerization of 4-aminobenzoic acid ester macromonomers 1 bearing poly(THF) on the amino group. The macromonomers are easily prepared by the reaction of living poly(THF) with 4-aminobenzoic acid ester. Polymerization of phenyl ester monomer 1a at −10 °C is accompanied by self-polycondensation, whereas that of methyl ester monomer 1b at 10 °C proceeds exclusively in a chain-growth polymerization manner.

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