Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 51 Issue 17

1 September 2013

Volume 51, Issue 17

Pages i–iv, 3531–3767

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      Cover Image, Volume 51, Issue 17 (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26862

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      Although fullerene has been widely used in many areas, its poor compatibility with most other materials is a big challenge for material processing, which can be surpassed by grafting fullerene on polymers. As presented on page 3572, Junting Li and Brian Benicewicz designed a facile synthetic route for side-chain fullerene polymers with simultaneous control over the molecular weight, fullerene content, and architecture using RAFT polymerization and a click reaction. The strong interactions between fullerenes cause collapse of the polymer chains, thus forming “patchy” nanoparticles with varying amounts of fullerenes on the surface of the particles. The cover image depicts the unique self-assemblies of the patchy particles into well-dispersed nanoparticles, nanoparticle strings, and nanoparticle sheets depending on their fullerene content and chain length. This predictable self-assembly behavior with well-defined polymers may find applications in the design of new functional materials. Image created by Yan Liang (l2xy2.com).

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      Inside Cover, Volume 51, Issue 17 (pages iii–iv)

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26863

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      Increasing interest for designing new biomaterials has led to the development of sophisticated polymers that must fulfill specific requirements such as biocompatibility and degradability. Degradation of polymeric biomaterials is crucial to ensure a safe and controlled clearance from the body, as well as to trigger the release of drugs and/or cells, depending on the specific biological application, as presented on page 3531. The cover image by Stéphanie Deshayes and Andrea M. Kasko shows the “burst” of a polymeric sphere that might be a nanoparticle, a micelle, a polymersome, or a capsule under a specific stimulus such as light, electrical field, ultrasound, or heating.

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      Polymeric biomaterials with engineered degradation (pages 3531–3566)

      Stéphanie Deshayes and Andrea M. Kasko

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26765

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      Degradation of polymeric biomaterials is crucial to ensure a safe and controlled clearance from the body, and to impart dynamic control over biomaterial properties. In the past decade, polymer chemists have created a niche for biomaterials that degrade in response to environmental, internal, and external triggers. This review provides a broad overview of recent advancements in using physiologically relevant stimuli to control the degradation of a wide range of materials with varying architectures and structures.

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      Intramolecular atom transfer radical coupling of macromolecular brushes (pages 3567–3571)

      Jinchuan Liu, Xueming Lian, Fei Zhao and Hanying Zhao

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26760

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      Single brush polymer nanoparticles are prepared by intramolecular atom transfer radical coupling, and after the coupling reaction the brush polymers undergo a conformational transition from a worm-like structure to a globule-like structure.

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    1. Synthesis of well-defined side chain fullerene polymers and study of their self-aggregation behaviors (pages 3572–3582)

      Junting Li and Brian C. Benicewicz

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26748

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      Well-defined linear side-chain fullerene polymers were synthesized using a soluble and monofunctionalized fullerene in a combined RAFT polymerization and click reaction approach. Simultaneous control of the molecular weight, polydispersity, and polymer composition was demonstrated to produce side chain fullerene polymers with high fullerene content (up to 78 C60 per chain). Additionally, the polymers displayed very interesting self-assembly behaviors depending on fullerene content and polymer molecular weight, ranging from spherical particles and strings to crystalline-like clusters.

    2. Rational design of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane fillers for simultaneous improvements of thermomechanical properties and lowering refractive indices of polymer films (pages 3583–3589)

      Jong-Hwan Jeon, Kazuo Tanaka and Yoshiki Chujo

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26757

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      Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-based dual-functional molecular fillers are designed for simultaneously lowering refractive indices and improving thermomechanical properties of conventional polymers. The polymer composites containing the POSS derivatives are prepared with the single functional unit for interacting with polymer chains and heptacyclopentyl substituents for creating exclusive volumes. Accordingly, the POSS fillers showed the desired effects.

    3. Synthesis of O-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) cellulose in NaOH/urea aqueous solution: As a precursor for introducing “necklace-like” structure (pages 3590–3597)

      Chunyu Chang, Yoshikuni Teramoto and Yoshiyuki Nishio

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26773

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      O-(2,3-Dihydroxypropyl) cellulose (DHPC) samples were synthesized by etherification of cellulose with glycidol in a NaOH/urea aqueous solution system under different reaction conditions, and used for producing cellulose derivatives (DHPCB) with a “necklace-like” structure by butyralization with butyraldehyde in acidic aqueous solution. Such butyral derivatives of cellulose are expected to be a promising functional material parallel or superior to poly(vinyl butyral) available for safety glass interlayers, etc.

    4. Synthesis, self-assembly and reversible healing of supramolecular perfluoropolyethers (pages 3598–3606)

      Guoxing Li, Jeong Jae Wie, Ngoc A. Nguyen, Woo Jin Chung, Eui Tae Kim, Kookheon Char, Michael E. Mackay and Jeffrey Pyun

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26777

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      A novel class of self-healing perfluoropolyethers was synthesized. By decoration of 2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidone end groups on the termini of low molar mass perfluoropolyether, the formation of supramolecular polymers and networks held together via hydrogen bonding associations was achieved. These novel supramolecular polymer materials exhibit a combination of high modulus, high elasticity, and self-healing properties.

    5. Synthesis of linear and hyperbranched sugar-grafted polysiloxanes using N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated esters (pages 3607–3618)

      Waêl Moukarzel, Jean-Daniel Marty, Dietmar Appelhans, Monique Mauzac and Juliette Fitremann

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26755

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      The preparation of linear polysiloxanes and hyperbranched poly(siloxysilane)s grafted with carbohydrate side groups is described. An intermediate polysiloxane grafted with undecanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester side groups is prepared, which reacts in homogeneous conditions with the unprotected sugar in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at room temperature. These mild conditions enable good integrity of the silicone backbone to be maintained. The polysiloxanes grafted with the carbohydrate groups show an enhanced solubility in polar solvents such as dimethylformamide or DMSO, but not in water.

    6. Selective formation of diblock copolymers using radical trap-assisted atom transfer radical coupling (pages 3619–3626)

      William E. Butcher, Scott C. Radzinski and Eric S. Tillman

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26756

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      Radical trap-assisted atom transfer radical coupling (RTA-ATRC) is used to selectively form PSt-PMA diblock copolymers, owing to differences in their C-Br chain end activation in the same redox active solution. The alkoxyamine unit sandwiched between the segments of the diblock allows for thermal cleavage of the copolymer.

    7. Cyclic and linear poly(ferrocenylene alkylene)s synthesized from addition-condensation polymerization of ferrocene with aldehydes (pages 3627–3635)

      Yuji Suzaki, Yusuke Yoshigoe and Kohtaro Osakada

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26758

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      Oligo- and poly(ferrocenylene alkylene)s were synthesized by Lewis acid-induced addition-condensation polymerization of ferrocene with aldehydes in which the reaction using alkyl aldehydes yields a mixture of the cyclic and linear polymers (or oligomers) although similar polymerization of ferrocene and aryl aldehyde yields the linear polymers.

    8. Carbazole-based conjugated polymer covalently coated Fe3O4 nanoparticle as efficient and reversible Hg2+ optical probe (pages 3636–3645)

      Yong Tian, Wei Shi, Jianmin Luo, Fudong Ma, Hongyu Mi and Yanli Lei

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26759

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      A magnetic-fluorescent dual-function nanocomposite, Fe3O4@SiO2@P-2, which consists of a Fe3O4 core, silica interlayer, and carbazole-based conjugated polymer shell, was successfully synthesized. Fe3O4@SiO2@P-2's fluorescence was specifically quenched by the introduction of I. Interestingly, fluorescence of the Fe3O4@SiO2@P-2-I complex recovered significantly with the presence of Hg2+ (acting as I abstractor). A detection limit of ∼4.17 × 10−7 M for Hg2+ can be obtained by this probing system. Results indicate that Fe3O4@SiO2@P-2 can act as a sensitive, selective, and reversible “Turn-On” optical probe for Hg2+.

    9. Preparation of a Porous polymer by a catalyst-free diels-alder reaction and its structural modification by post-reaction (pages 3646–3653)

      Hyungwoo Kim, Taejin Choi, Min Chul Cha and Ji Young Chang

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26763

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      A microporous polymer has been prepared by the catalyst-free Diels–Alder reaction. Owing to the thermal reversibility of the Diels–Alder linkage, the cross-linked structure can be thermally rearranged to form more micropores. The polymer is further functionalized with pyrene for aromatic dye adsorption.

    10. Synthesis of highly sulfonated polybenzimidazoles by direct copolymerization and grafting (pages 3654–3666)

      Mahesh P. Kulkarni, Timothy J. Peckham, Owen D. Thomas and Steven Holdcroft

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26764

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      A series of highly sulfonated copolymers based on polybenzimidazole have been synthesized via direct copolymerization and grafting. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents but insoluble in water due to acid–base crosslinking.

    11. Cationic poly(ester-phosphoester)s: Facile synthesis and antibacterial properties (pages 3667–3673)

      Weipu Zhu, Hong Du, Ying Huang, Shuai Sun, Ning Xu, Huagang Ni, Xia Cai, Xiaodong Li and Zhiquan Shen

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26768

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      The facile synthesis of biodegradable poly(ester-phosphoester)s bearing multiple ammonium groups by simple ring-opening copolymerization and quaternization is reported. The cationic poly(ester-phosphoester)s with long alkyl chains in the ammonium groups show good antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, which makes it a suitable candidate for a number of applications in the biomedical field.

    12. Long range chirality transfer in free radical polymerization of vinylterphenyl monomers bearing chiral alkoxy groups (pages 3674–3687)

      Anhua Liu, Zhiyuan Zhao, Rong Wang, Jie Zhang and Xinhua Wan

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26769

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      The substitution of [BOND]COO[BOND] with [BOND]O[BOND], which links the chiral alkyl tail to the terphenyl pendant, causes significant effects on the chirality transfer in helix-sense-selective polymerization of vinylterphenyl monomers and the chiroptical properties of the resultant polymers. Although the stereogenic centers in (+)-2-[4'-((S)-sec-butoxy)phenyl]-5-(4'-hexoxyphenyl)styrene and (+)-2-(4'-hexoxyphenyl)-5-[4'-((S)-sec-butoxy)phenyl]styrene are closer to the vinyl group than (+)-2-[4'-((S)-2-methylbutyloxy)phenyl]-5-(4'-hexoxyphenyl)styrene and (+)-2-(4'-hexoxyphenyl)-5-[4'-((S)-2-methylbutyloxy)phenyl]styrene, separately, a weaker chiral induction power is observed. Moreover, optical rotations of polymers derived from the former two monomers are opposite in sign and increase with annealing time at high temperature in tetrahydrofuran.

    13. Characterization of catechol-containing natural thermosetting polymer “urushiol” thin film (pages 3688–3692)

      Hirohmi Watanabe, Aya Fujimoto and Atsushi Takahara

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26770

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      Urushi is a promising candidate for a natural catechol derivative category that can be used as a thermosetting polymer. A fabrication procedure for a thermally curable urushi thin film with tunable mechanical characteristics is developed. The mechanical characteristics of the thin film are controlled by the concentration of iron(II) acetate as the additive.

    14. Efficient synthesis of β-(1,6)-linked oligosaccharides through microwave-assisted glycosylation (pages 3693–3699)

      Lingyao Li, Emily A. Franckowiak, Yi Xu, Evan McClain and Wenjun Du

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26771

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      A microwave-assisted glycosylation method was developed to synthesize oligosaccharides from di-functional AB monomers bearing only weakly reactive glycosyl bromide donors. The glycosylation reactions of the monomers were ineffective at room temperature, elevated temperature, and under low microwave energy irradiation. However, under high microwave energy irradiation, the glycosylation gave oligosaccharides with molecular weights up to 4.76 kDa in nearly quantitative yield.

    15. Synthesis and characterization of new poly(ethyleneimine)-g-poly(methyl methacrylate) star-block copolymers with hyperbranched cationic core (pages 3700–3715)

      Ralph Beckmann and Uwe Beginn

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26772

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      Grafting of N-hydroxysuccinimide monofunctionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to hyperbranched, partially quarternized poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) yields new hyperbranched PEI-g-PMMA star-block copolymers. In organic solutions, the macromolecules form “core–shell” unimers at low and finite size at high concentrations. The polymers act as effective dispersants for nanoparticles in organic monomers and allow for a subsequent polymerization to result in nanocomposites. Association and adsorption behavior are proposed to be based on an intramolecular reorganization, forming “opened unimers.”

    16. In Situ polymerization functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with polystyrene (pages 3716–3725)

      Matthew J. Kayatin and Virginia A. Davis

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26774

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      Short polystyrene chains are tethered to the surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes using an excess of lithium in ammonia. Reaction conditions such as lithium content and monomer addition are studied to improve extent of nanotube functionalization and coverage. The developed scheme is tested against well-studied functionalization chemistries. Dodecylated nanotubes are used as a metric for polystyrene grafting.

    17. Phosgene-free synthesis of polypeptides: Useful synthesis for hydrophobic polypeptides through polycondensation of activated urethane derivatives of α-amino acids (pages 3726–3731)

      Shuhei Yamada, Koichi Koga, Atsushi Sudo, Mitsuaki Goto and Takeshi Endo

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26775

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      A useful and phosgene-free synthetic route to polypeptides using a series of urethane derivative of α-amino acids (l-leucine, l-phenylalanine, l-valine, l-alanine, l-isoleucine, l-methionine), which are readily synthesized by N-carbamoylation of tetrabutylammonium salts of α-amino acids with diphenyl carbonate, have been developed. Heating these urethane derivatives in N,N-dimethylacetamide in the presence of n-butylamine successfully gave the corresponding polypeptides with well-defined structure through polycondensation with the elimination of phenol and CO2.

    18. The effect of microwave irradiation on the kinetics and activation thermodynamics of ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (pages 3732–3739)

      Shinji Yamada, Akinori Takasu and Kazuhiko Kawamura

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26776

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      Microwave-assisted ROP of ɛ-caprolactone catalyzed by Lewis and Brønsted acids at relatively low temperatures (50–70 °C) is described. To investigate the effects of microwave versus conventional heating, the Arrhenius and Eyring equations were used to compare the reaction kinetics of the ROPs that used the two types of temperature control but were otherwise run under the same conditions. ΔG values associated with microwave heating are mainly a consequence of the larger ΔS values, which are possibly associated with differences in the types of intermediates and/or transition states for the two types of temperature control. These fundamental results provide new insight into the microwave-assisted polymer synthesis.

    19. Poly(lactic acid) composites with poly(lactic acid)-modified carbon nanotubes (pages 3740–3750)

      Rui M. Novais, Frank Simon, Petra Pötschke, Tobias Villmow, José A. Covas and Maria C. Paiva

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26778

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      The present work focuses the effect of carbon nanotube functionalization on the dispersion in poly(lactic acid). The results show that CNT functionalized with pyrrolidine groups react with PLA under melt mixing conditions. The composites with functionalized CNT present similar electrical resistivity and improved tensile properties compared with nonfunctionalized CNT.

    20. Thermoresponsive hyperbranched polymers via In Situ RAFT copolymerization of peg-based monomethacrylate and dimethacrylate monomers (pages 3751–3761)

      Hongyun Tai, Anna Tochwin and Wenxin Wang

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26779

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      A facile in situ RAFT polymerization approach was developed and employed for the preparation of thermoresponsive hyperbranched polymers with multiple methacrylate groups and RAFT agent residues. These functional groups lead interesting properties of these polymers and they can be used as smart polymerizable precursors and building blocks for the design of functional materials in applications such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, diagnostics, and separations.

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      Synthesis of well-defined, amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol)-b-hyperbranched polyamide (pages 3762–3766)

      Yoshihiro Ohta, Teruaki Kanou, Akihiro Yokoyama and Tsutomu Yokozawa

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26762

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      Condensation reaction of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with a carboxyl group at one chain end and hyperbranched polyamide (HBPA) with a hydroxyl group at the focal point was performed in the presence of condensation agent at ambient temperature, yielding PEG-b-HBPAs with defined molecular weight and very narrow molecular weight distribution. PEG-b-HBPA formed micelles in water.

  6. Corrigendum

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      Electromagnetic properties of Fe3O4-functionalized graphene and its composites with a conducting polymer (page 3767)

      Tran Thanh Tung, Jean-Francois Feller, TaeYoung Kim, Hyeongkeun Kim, Woo Seok Yang and Kwang S. Suh

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26781

      This article corrects:

      Electromagnetic properties of Fe3O4-functionalized graphene and its composites with a conducting polymer

      Vol. 50, Issue 5, 927–935, Article first published online: 28 NOV 2011

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