Three-dimensional microfabrication of protein hydrogels via two-photon-excited thiol-vinyl ester photopolymerization (pages 4799–4810)
Xiao-Hua Qin, Jan Torgersen, Robert Saf, Severin Mühleder, Niklas Pucher, S. Clark Ligon, Wolfgang Holnthoner, Heinz Redl, Aleksandr Ovsianikov, Jürgen Stampfl and Robert Liska
Article first published online: 2 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26903
The spatiotemporal 3D printing of hydrogels with user-dictated structures is promising for current biomaterials research. However, the lack of appropriate fabrication techniques and robust polymerization approaches remain hurdles. A new cytocompatible hydrogel precursor (vinyl ester derivative of gelatin) and subsequent two-photon excited thiol-vinyl ester photopolymerization are introduced. By using robust two-photon chemistry, it is possible to simultaneously pattern two proteins into user-defined 3D structures with a high writing speed.