Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 51 Issue 8

15 April 2013

Volume 51, Issue 8

Pages i–iv, 1685–1892

  1. Cover Image

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Image
    3. Rapid Communication
    4. Original Articles
    5. Notes
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Image, Volume 51, Issue 8 (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26640

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      Thick photosensitive films with sufficient light penetration are required for improving the capacity of recording media based on azopolymers. Block copolymers having an azo liquid crystalline block allow the dilution of azo chromophores but maintain the cooperativity among them. On page 1716, Jesús del Barrio, Eva Blasco, Luis Oriol, Rafael Alcalá, and Carlos Sánchez-Somolinos describe the self-assembly of azo chromophores and pyridine units of commercial polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine)s to obtain photoresponsive supramolecular block copolymers. This approach offers a versatile and facile method for the preparation of photoresponsive block copolymers for volume holographic storage.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Inside Cover, Volume 51, Issue 8 (pages iii–iv)

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26641

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      Polymerizable deep-eutectic solvents (DESs) formed between a variety of ammonium salts and hydrogen-bond donors containing acrylic acids and acrylamides are capable of sustaining frontal polymerization, as presented by Gabriel Luna-Bárcenas et al. on page 1767. After complete conversion, the non-polymerizable counterpart of DES can be released from the polymer in controlled fashion. For instance, the cover image depicts a monolith of poly(acrylic acid) loaded with lidocaine hydrochloride (a common anesthetic) that plays the role of ammonium salt. Since the swelling behavior of polyacrylates depends on the pH, the release of lidocaine hydrochloride can be tuned by modifying the pH of the medium.

  2. Rapid Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Image
    3. Rapid Communication
    4. Original Articles
    5. Notes
    1. Sugar overcomes oxygen inhibition in photoinitiated free radical polymerization (pages 1685–1689)

      Faruk Oytun, Muhammet U. Kahveci and Yusuf Yagci

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26554

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      Photo-initiated radical polymerization has several advantages that qualify this process for application in many industrial fields, but suffers from oxygen (O2) inhibition. The prohibitive cost of existing methods to prevent O2 inhibition has hampered their widespread use in industrial applications involving free radical polymerization in air. A novel approach based on an enzymatic pathway in which glucose oxidase acts as catalyst for glucose oxidation using O2 is described to overcome O2 inhibition of radical polymerizations.

    2. Ambient temperature copper-mediated living radical polymerization of acrylonitrile with Me6TREN as the reducing agent (pages 1690–1694)

      Yun-Hai Yu, Xiao-Hui Liu, Di Jia, Bo-Wen Cheng, Yuan-Lin Ren, Fei-Jun Zhang, Hui-Na Li, Peng Chen and Shan Xie

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26558

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      A universal high reactive ligand, Me6TREN, was successfully explored as the reducing agent for the ambient temperature copper-mediated LRP of AN. The key to success is ascribed to the optimized Me6TREN amount and reaction conditions employed, producing ideal living free radical polymerization characteristics. The very high chain-end functionality of the resultant polymer has been confirmed by GPC and 1H NMR analyses as well as the chain-extension reaction.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Image
    3. Rapid Communication
    4. Original Articles
    5. Notes
    1. Triptycene-containing polyetherolefins via acyclic diene metathesis polymerization (pages 1695–1706)

      Stefanie A. Sydlik, Paula A. Delgado, Sotaro Inomata, Brett VanVeller, Yong Yang, Timothy M. Swager and Kenneth B. Wagener

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26557

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      Several new triptycene-containing polyetherolefins were synthesized via acyclic diene metathesis polymerization. Inclusion of triptycene was found to increase the glass transition temperature over 100 °C from the control polymer without any triptycene. Varying the amounts and orientations of triptycene was found to increase the stiffness, toughness, and ductility of the polymer at room temperature.

    2. Synthesis, thermal, and photocrosslinking studies of thermotropic liquid crystalline poly(benzylidene-ether)esters containing α,β-unsaturated ketone moiety in the main chain (pages 1707–1715)

      Athianna Muthusamy, Krishnasamy Balaji and Salem Chandrasekaran Murugavel

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26560

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      Poly(benzylidene-ether)esters containing a photoreactive benzylidene chromophore in the main chain were synthesized from 2,6-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene) cyclohexanone. The influence of the length of methylene spacer on phase transition was investigated using DSC and an odd-even effect has been observed. The photolysis of liquid crystalline poly(benzylidene-ether)esters revealed that the α,β-unsaturated ketone moiety in the main chain dimerises through 2π + 2π cycloaddition reaction to form a cyclobutane derivative and leads to crosslinking. The rate of photocrosslinking decreases significantly on increasing methylene carbon chain length of the acid spacer.

    3. Diblock copolymer–azobenzene complexes through hydrogen bonding: Self-assembly and stable photoinduced optical anisotropy (pages 1716–1725)

      Jesús del Barrio, Eva Blasco, Luis Oriol, Rafael Alcalá and Carlos Sánchez-Somolinos

      Article first published online: 5 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26523

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      The preparation of a series of photoaddressable supramolecular block copolymers is demonstrated by mixing a carboxy-terminated azobenzene derivative, AZO, and two PS-b-P4VP block copolymers. Homogeneous liquid crystalline materials were obtained for ratios of AZO to vinylpyridine repeating unit, x, lower or equal to 0.50. Mixtures with higher x resulted in heterogeneous materials showing clear macrophase separation. Photoinduced orientation of the azobenzene units was obtained in films of PS-b-P4VP(AZO)x with x = 0.25 and 0.50.

    4. Highly near-infrared emissive boron di(iso)indomethene-based polymer: Drastic change from deep-red to near-infrared emission via quantitative polymer reaction (pages 1726–1733)

      Ryousuke Yoshii, Atsushi Nagai, Kazuo Tanaka and Yoshiki Chujo

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26547

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      A series of near-infrared (NIR) emissive conjugated polymers with boron di(iso)indomethenes were synthesized. Quantitative demethylation of the polymer was carried out to transform the polymer to a NIR emissive polymer. The obtained polymer gave both a drastically larger red-shifted and a sharper PL spectrum than the parent polymer in the NIR region (ΦPL = 0.37, full width at half maximum height Δλ1/2 = 460 cm−1, λPL = 758 nm).

    5. Synthesis of thermosetting polyetherimide-containing allyl groups (pages 1734–1741)

      Ching Hsuan Lin, Sheng Lung Chang, Yu Ru Wang, Chin Kuang Hsu and Tzong Yuan Juang

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26549

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      An organosoluble polyetherimide (PEI) (4) containing an allyl group was successfully prepared. PEI (5), obtained from the thermal curing of PEI (4) at 300 °C, displays a much higher Tg value (307 °C) and a lower coefficient of thermal expansion (29 ppm/°C) than the PEI (4) (Tg 253 °C, CTE 52 ppm/°C).

    6. Enolate anionic initiator, sodium deoxybenzoin, for leading living natures by formation of aggregators at the growth chain ends (pages 1742–1748)

      Joonkeun Min, Hee-Soo Yoo, Priyank N. Shah, Chang-Geun Chae and Jae-Suk Lee

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26550

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      Self-aggregated sodium deoxybenzoin (Na-DB) molecules can form a trimeric aggregator in tetrahydrofuran and vacuum state. Upon addition of hexyisocyanate, a single molecule of Na-DB initiates the monomers and two other molecules to form a complex with a growing amidate anion of polyisocyanate. Thus, Na-DB can perform dual functions: initiation and additive effects.

    7. Spotlight Article

      Evaluation of thiol-ene click chemistry in functionalized polysiloxanes (pages 1749–1757)

      Megan A. Cole and Christopher N. Bowman

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26551

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      The thiol-ene reaction is characterized with respect to the polymerization rate, rate-limiting step, and termination mode (i.e., bimolecular vs. unimolecular events) for functionalized siloxane systems of varying structural compositions.

    8. Organic sol–gel synthesis of microporous molecular networks containing spirobifluorene and tetraphenylmethane nodes (pages 1758–1766)

      Su-Young Moon, Hye-Rim Mo, Min-Kyoon Ahn, Jae-Sung Bae, Eunkyung Jeon and Ji-Woong Park

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26552

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      Microporous molecular networks containing spirobifluorene and tetraphenylmethane units are synthesized by the organic sol-gel method. The network materials are produced in different forms and porosities varying with the processing conditions for the sols consisting of nanoparticle dispersions of the molecular networks as well as the composition of comonomers.

    9. Deep eutectic solvents as both active fillers and monomers for frontal polymerization (pages 1767–1773)

      Josué D. Mota-Morales, María C. Gutiérrez, M. Luisa Ferrer, Isaac C. Sanchez, Eduardo A. Elizalde-Peña, John A. Pojman, Francisco Del Monte and Gabriel Luna-Bárcenas

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26555

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      Deep eutectic solvents (DESs), based upon mixtures of a variety of ammonium salts – the active fillers – and hydrogen bond donors containing acrylic acids and acrylamides, are capable of sustaining frontal polymerization (FP) with full conversion. For instance, after FP of acrylic acid-lidocaine hydrochloride DES, the lidocaine hydrocloride can be released in a controlled fashion.

    10. Spotlight Article

      1:2-sequence-regulated radical copolymerization of naturally occurring terpenes with maleimide derivatives in fluorinated alcohol (pages 1774–1785)

      Masaru Matsuda, Kotaro Satoh and Masami Kamigaito

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26556

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      Naturally occurring bulky terpenes were quantitatively copolymerized with various maleimide derivatives via selective 1:2-alternating propagation governed by the penultimate effect, which resulted in 1:2-sequence regulated polymers with relatively high glass transition temperatures and optical activities. Similar petroleum-derived bulky olefins possessing α-methyl substituents were copolymerized with phenylmaleimide via preferential 1:2-alternating propagation with a slightly lower selectivity. A further decrease in the bulkiness of non-polar olefins increased the 1:1-alternating sequence.

    11. In situ nitroxide-mediated polymerization of styrene promoted by the N-tert-butyl-α-isopropylnitrone/bpo pair: ESR investigations (pages 1786–1795)

      Christophe Detrembleur, Jean-Louis Clément, Valérie Sciannaméa, Christine Jérôme, Jean-Marie Catala, Didier Gigmes, Laurent Autissier, Edith Botek, Natalia Zarycz and Benoît Champagne

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26559

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      Electron spin resonance analysis of in situ nitroxide-mediated polymerization of styrene promoted by the benzoyl peroxide/N-tert-butyl-α-isopropylnitrone pair is investigated to elucidate the structure of the nitroxides responsible for the polymerization control.

    12. Spotlight Article

      Synthesis of ABA-triblock and star-diblock copolymers with poly(2-adamantyl vinyl ether) and poly(n-butyl vinyl ether) segments: New thermoplastic elastomers composed solely of poly(vinyl ether) backbones (pages 1796–1807)

      Tsuguto Imaeda, Tamotsu Hashimoto, Satoshi Irie, Michio Urushisaki and Toshikazu Sakaguchi

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26561

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      ABA-type triblock copolymers and AB-type star-shaped diblock copolymers with poly(2-adamantyl vinyl ether) [poly(2-AdVE)] hard outer segments and poly(n-butyl vinyl ether) [poly(NBVE)] soft inner segments were synthesized by sequential living cationic copolymerization. Although they are totally composed of poly(vinyl ether) backbones and hydrocarbon side chains, the two polymer segments were segregated into a microphase-separated structure to form thermoplastic elastomers with good mechanical and thermal properties and wide service temperatures.

    13. Flame retardant high oleic sunflower oil-based thermosetting resins through aza- and phospha-michael additions (pages 1808–1815)

      Maryluz Moreno, Gerard Lligadas, Juan C. Ronda, Marina Galià and Virginia Cádiz

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26562

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      New flame retardant phosphorus-containing thermosetting resins have been prepared by phospha-Michael addition of a difunctional secondary phosphine oxide, the 1,3-bis(phenylphosphino)propane dioxide, and aza-Michael addition of 4,4′-diaminodiphenylmethane. Different materials with 0–4.2% of P were obtained starting from a high oleic sunflower oil enone derivative. The kinetics of the phospha and aza-Michael additions under various conditions was investigated using model compounds and the thermal stability and flame retardant properties of the final materials were evaluated by TGA and LOI measurements.

    14. In vitro hemocompatibility and cytotoxicity study of poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) for biomedical applications (pages 1816–1821)

      Marius Bauer, Susann Schroeder, Lutz Tauhardt, Kristian Kempe, Ulrich S. Schubert and Dagmar Fischer

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26564

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      The biocompatibility of poly(2-methyl-2-oxazolines) is systematically investigated with regards to cyto- and hemotoxicity. With its excellent biocompatibility profile PMeOxs can compete with other non-ionic hydrophilic polymers applied in the medical field.

    15. A macromonomer approach to the synthesis of poly(1,1-bis(ethoxycarbonyl)-2-vinyl cyclopropane-graft-dimethyl siloxane) (pages 1822–1830)

      Prodip Sarker, Saif U. R. Rehman and Stephen Rimmer

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26565

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      The first graft copolymers with poly(vinyl cyclopropane) backbones were produced by first preparing a poly(dimethyl siloxane) with an allyl carbonate at one end group. This was then polymerized with 1,1-bis(ethoxycarbonyl)-2-vinyl cyclopropane (ECVP). The materials have low glass transition temperatures that were dependent on polymer composition.

    16. In situ polymerization and characterization of graphene oxide-co-poly(phenylene benzobisoxazole) copolymer fibers derived from composite inner salts (pages 1831–1842)

      Yanwei Li, Jun Li, Yuanjun Song, Zhen Hu, Feng Zhao and Yudong Huang

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26566

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      A novel procedure through composite inner salts is presented based on the design and preparation of poly(phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO) copolymer fibers with well-dispersedgraphene oxide (GO). Three dimensional networks of PBO molecular chains and well dispersed GO particles are successfully constructed in GO-co-PBO copolymer fibers. The intensified interface strength and increased load transfer capacity between GO nanoparticles and PBO matrix result in GO-co-PBO copolymer fibers with significantly higher mechanical and thermal properties than PBO fiber.

    17. Development of naphthalene and quinoxaline-based donor–acceptor conjugated copolymers for delivering high open-circuit voltage in photovoltaic devices (pages 1843–1851)

      Myung-Jin Baek, Hanok Park, Pranabesh Dutta, Woo-Hyung Lee, In-Nam Kang and Soo-Hyoung Lee

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26567

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      New naphthalene-quinoxaline-based polymers are developed and showed remarkable photovoltaic performance with Voc of >0.9 V and power conversion efficiency up to ∼3% for the cell upon addition of 1,8-diiodoctane additive.

    18. Statistical fluorinated copolymers from heterogeneous atom transfer radical copolymerization of styrene and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate with similar reactivity ratios (pages 1852–1864)

      Ganwei Zhang, Jiwen Hu, Guping He, Hailiang Zou, Feng Liu, Chengmin Hou, Hongsheng Luo and Yuanyuan Tu

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26568

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      Reported here is a novel synthetic strategy for preparing gradient fluorinated copolymers with statistical structure of azeotropic or gradient composition from styrene (S) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (T) with very similar reactivity ratios via heterogeneous ATRP.

    19. Benzoin type photoinitiator for free radical polymerization (pages 1865–1871)

      Duygu Sevinc Esen, Nergis Arsu, José P. Da Silva, Steffen Jockusch and Nicholas J. Turro

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26569

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      This new benzoin derivative performed significantly better in photo-polymerization experiments of bulk solutions or films of acrylate monomers than the unsubstituted benzoin, a popular photoinitiator. Studies suggest that a slow α-cleavage mechanism from the electronic triplet state with a quantum yield of 0.1 is the primary photoreaction to generate the initiating free radicals.

    20. Ligand-free SET-DTLRP of MMA at room temperature (pages 1872–1879)

      Wenxiang Wang, Junfei Zhao, Wei Zhang, Jian Zhu, Zhengbiao Zhang and Xiulin Zhu

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26570

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      Ligand-free single-electron transfer and degenerative chain transfer mediated living radical polymerization (SET-DTLRP) for methyl methacrylate (MMA) was realized by the initiation of an iodine-based initiator, 2-iodo-2-methylpropionitrile (CPI), in DMSO at ambient temperature. The polymerization produced acceptable controls over molecular weights with relatively narrow distributions (Mw/Mn ≤ 1.35). The polymers were obtained with high fidelity (∼ 96%) and active chain end groups. This work offered a more economical and eco-friendly SET-DTLRP technique.

    21. Synthesis of a well-defined polyallene-based amphiphilic graft copolymer via sequential living coordination polymerization and SET-LRP (pages 1880–1886)

      Guolin Lu, Yongjun Li, Bin Dai, Caixia Xu and Xiaoyu Huang

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26571

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      A well-defined amphiphilic graft copolymer, containing a hydrophobic polyallene- based backbone and hydrophilic poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) side chains, was synthesized by the combination of living coordination polymerization, single electron transfer-living radical polymerization, and the grafting-from strategy.

  4. Notes

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Image
    3. Rapid Communication
    4. Original Articles
    5. Notes
    1. Synthesis of polystyrene-graft-poly(p-benzamide) by chain-growth condensation polymerization and radical polymerization: Improvement of thermal properties of polystyrene (pages 1887–1892)

      Yoshihiro Ohta, Tadahiko Shirakura, Akihiro Yokoyama and Tsutomu Yokozawa

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.26548

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      Polystyrene-graft-poly(p-benzamide) was synthesized by free radical copolymerization of poly(N-octyloxybenzyl-p-benzamide) macromonomer and styrene, followed by the removal of the octyloxybenzyl groups from amide nitrogen. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of polystyrene-graft-poly(p-benzamide) increased dramatically by 50–60 °C when the content of poly(p-benzamide) exceeded a threshold of about 4%.

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