Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

Cover image for Vol. 52 Issue 9

1 May 2014

Volume 52, Issue 9

Pages i–iv, 1217–1367

  1. Cover Image

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Image
    3. Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Image, Volume 52, Issue 9 (pages i–ii)

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27155

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      The synthesis of novel amphiphilic diblock copolymers comprised of hydrophilic linear polyethylene glycol and linear brush hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane is introduced by Andri Halim, Timothy Reid, Jing M. Ren, Qiang Fu, Paul A. Gurr, Anton Blencowe, Sandra E. Kentish, and Greg G. Qiao on page 1251 (DOI: 10.1002/pola.27111). Self-assembly of these diblock copolymers in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) results in the formation of nanoparticles with different conformations. The assembly configurations rely heavily on the individual block lengths of the linear–linear brush diblock copolymers and vary from spherical micelles to large compound micelles.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Cover Image, Volume 52, Issue 9 (pages iii–iv)

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27156

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      A series of two-dimensional donor–acceptor–donor (D1–A(D2)) type of conducting polymers is synthesized by introducing the donor–acceptor (D1–A) thiophene–quinoxaline moiety in the main chain and additional donor and hole transporting units in the side chain. All UV-vis spectra of the 2D polymers, PTPQT, PFPQT, and PCPQT, each with triphenylamine, fluorene, and carbazole units as the D2 side chain, possess strong intramolecular charge transfer absorption, resulting in better light harvesting. Their optoelectronic properties are explored by Yi-Lung Yang, Yi-Huan Lee, Yu-Ping Lee, Chi-Ju Chiang, Fong-Yu Hsu, Wei-Chun Hsu, Man-kit Leung, Leeyih Wang, Chi-An Dai, Yoshihiro Ohta, and Tsutomu Yokozawa on page 1217 (DOI: 10.1002/pola.27107). The 2D conducting polymers show potential for use as an active material in optoelectronic devices.

  2. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Image
    3. Articles
    1. Band gap tuning of narrow-polydispersity two-dimensional conductive polymers with electroactive side-chains (pages 1217–1227)

      Yi-Lung Yang, Yi-Huan Lee, Yu-Ping Lee, Chi-Ju Chiang, Fong-Yu Hsu, Wei-Chun Hsu, Man-kit Leung, Leeyih Wang, Chi-An Dai, Yoshihiro Ohta and Tsutomu Yokozawa

      Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27107

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      Donor–acceptor–donor (D-A-D) polymers exhibit strong intramolecular charge transfer absorption, resulting in better light harvesting. Narrow polydispersity polymers have been prepared to investigate chain length effects on optoelectronic properties. From the prepared uniform two-dimensional donor–acceptor–donor (D1–A(D2)) structures, the limiting values for the band gap energy (Eg) of the three polymers, PTPQT (D2 = triphenylamine), PFPQT (D2 = fluorene), and PCPQT (D2 = carbazole) were determined to be 1.78, 1.80, and 1.75 eV, respectively. The 2D conducting polymers show potential for use as an active material in optoelectronic devices.

    2. Terpolymerization kinetics of amino acid N-carboxy anhydrides (pages 1228–1236)

      Mischa Zelzer and Andreas Heise

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27109

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      The polymerization kinetics of the reaction of three N-carboxy anhydrides (NCA), Glu(Bzl)-NCA, Lys(Z)-NCA, and Tyr(Bzl)-NCA in a random copolymerization are determined using a recently developed high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based approach. Monomer consumption over time can be followed during the terpolymerization, and the relative reactivity of the monomers can be determined. The kinetic data is further used to deduce information about the composition of the final polypeptide.

    3. Spotlight Article

      Controlled ring-opening homo- and copolymerization of ɛ-caprolactone and d,l-lactide by iminophenolate aluminum complexes: An efficient approach toward well-defined macromonomers (pages 1237–1250)

      Kirill V. Zaitsev, Yulia A. Piskun, Yuri F. Oprunenko, Sergey S. Karlov, Galina S. Zaitseva, Irina V. Vasilenko, Andrei V. Churakov and Sergei V. Kostjuk

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27110

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      The investigation of the synthesis and structure of aluminum complexes based on iminophenolate ligands (L2AlMe and L2AlOCH2(CH2)4OCH=CH2) and their reactivity in the ring-opening homo- and copolymerization of ɛ-caprolactone and D,L-lactide in bulk has been performed. These compounds initiate controlled ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of E-caprolactone and D,L-lactide, affording macromonomers with a high content of vinyl ether end groups (up to 100%) and with relatively narrow polydispersity.

    4. Soft nanoparticles assembled from linear poly(ethylene glycol) and linear brush polydimethylsiloxane diblock copolymers (pages 1251–1262)

      Andri Halim, Timothy D. Reid, Jing M. Ren, Qiang Fu, Paul A. Gurr, Anton Blencowe, Sandra E. Kentish and Greg G. Qiao

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27111

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      This article highlights the formation of spherical soft nanoparticles prepared from the self-assembly of two chemically diverse polymers. A range of particle sizes were obtained through varying the composition of polymers. The structure of the nanoparticles was stabilized via UV photodimerization at 365 nm. These nanoparticles have the potential to be utilized as additives to existing membranes to increase their gas separation performance.

    5. Polymer end group modifications and polymer conjugations via “click” chemistry employing microreactor technology (pages 1263–1274)

      Joke Vandenbergh, Tiago Tura, Evelien Baeten and Thomas Junkers

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27112

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      Microreactor protocols have been developed for the azidation of atom transfer radical polymerization polymers. The implementation of those materials in copper catalyzed click reactions with alkyne polymers is executed in a continuous flow reactor.

    6. Improvement in semipermeable membrane performance of wholly aromatic polyamide through an additive processing strategy (pages 1275–1281)

      Motohiro Aiba, Takahiro Tokuyama, Susumu Baba, Hidetoshi Matsumoto, Hiroki Tomioka, Tomoya Higashihara and Mitsuru Ueda

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27113

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      A new concept to provide semipermeability in ultrathin and single-component wholly aromatic polyamide membranes has been developed. The aqueous additives in a casting solution suppressed the polymer–polymer interaction to form pores in the membranes. It was found that the pore filled with water in the membranes, which enhanced the water transport properties.

    7. Synthesis and optical properties of poly(aryl ether ketone)s incorporating porphyrins in the backbones (pages 1282–1290)

      Yinlong Du, Shuling Zhang, Xu Jiang, Kai Zhu, Zhi Geng, Yu Fang, Pengfei Huo, Chuan Liu, Yinglin Song and Guibin Wang

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27116

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      A series of novel poly(aryl ether ketone) (PAEK) copolymers containing porphyrins in the main chain have been designed and synthesized successfully. The porphyrins units endow PAEKs with a strong fluorescence response, large third-order nonlinear susceptibilities, and excellent optical limiting performance. The improved thermal stabilities and glass transition temperature as a result of the incorporation of porphyrins in the backbone are also investigated.

    8. An approach to improve the efficiency of polymerization and enhance biological activity of poly(lactide-co-ethylene oxide fumarate) hydrogels (pages 1291–1299)

      Sherry Lee, Xia Zhong, Roya Ravarian, Peter Valtchev and Fariba Dehghani

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27117

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      High pressure CO2 expanded dichloromethane and potassium carbonate (K2CO3) were used as the alternative solvent and acid scavenger for the synthesis of poly(lactide ethylene oxide fumarate) (PLEOF). The resultant hydrogel showed superior properties and biological activity compared with samples produced in an organic solvent.

    9. ADMET reactions in miniemulsion (pages 1300–1305)

      Priscilla B. Cardoso, Anna Musyanovych, Katharina Landfester, Claudia Sayer, Pedro H. H. de Araújo and Michael A. R. Meier

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27118

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      A 100% renewable monomer was polymerized via acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) reactions in aqueous miniemulsion. Different types of ruthenium-based catalysts and different surfactants (anionic, cationic, and nonionic) were evaluated. Polymeric nanoparticles were successfully obtained with Mn of up to 15 kDa.

    10. Novel alkoxyanthracene donor and benzothiadiazole acceptor for organic thin film transistor and bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells (pages 1306–1314)

      Jae Yeol Ma, Hui-Jun Yun, Seul-Ong Kim, Gi Back Lee, Hyojung Cha, Chan Eon Park, Soon-Ki Kwon and Yun-Hi Kim

      Version of Record online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27119

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      A series of new polymers with alternating alkyloxyanthracene and benzothiadiazole units were synthesized and characterized. The hole mobility of poly(alkoxy anthracene-alt-thiophene benzothiadiazole thiophene) (poly(ODA-TBT)) and poly(alkoxy anthracene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (poly(ODA-BT)) was around 3.6 × 10−3 cm2/Vs and 1.21 × 10−2 cm2/Vs, respectively. The ODA-TBT–based bulk heterojunction device exhibited a Jsc of 3.9 mA/cm2, VOC of 0.83 V, FF of 43.6%, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.4% at 120 °C annealed, while ODA-BT based bulk heterojunction performances showed a JSC of 6.4 mA/cm2, VOC of 0.76 V, FF of 45.6%, and PCE of 2.2% at 120 °C annealed.

    11. Spotlight Article

      Influence of small amounts of addition-fragmentation capable monomers on polymerization-induced shrinkage stress (pages 1315–1321)

      James W. Wydra, Christopher R. Fenoli, Neil B. Cramer, Jeffrey W. Stansbury and Christopher N. Bowman

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27120

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      The addition of small amounts of multifunctional monomers that contain trithiocarbonate (TTC) groups capable of undergoing addition-fragmentation during radical polymerizations enables significant reductions in polymerization induced shrinkage stress. Here, the addition of TTC to a thiol-acrylate system shows reduced shrinkage stress versus conversion for formulations containing 0 (image), 0.5 (image), 3 (image), and 6 (image) wt % TTC.

    12. Carbon fibers prepared from tailored reversible-addition-fragmentation transfer copolymerization-derived poly(acrylonitrile)-co-poly(methylmethacrylate) (pages 1322–1333)

      Johanna M. Spörl, Antje Ota, Ronald Beyer, Thomas Lehr, Alexandra Müller, Frank Hermanutz and Michael R. Buchmeiser

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27121

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      Reversible-addition fragmentation-transfer polymerization allows for the high-yield copolymerization of acrylonitrile with methyl methacrylate (MMA). Molecular weights, polydispersity indices, and MMA content of the copolymer were adjusted in a way that precursor fibers could be prepared via wet spinning. These precursor fibers were oxidatively stabilized and carbonized at different temperatures. A maximum tensile strength of 2.5 GPa was reached at 1350 °C.

    13. Controlled cationic alternating copolymerization of various enol ethers and benzaldehyde derivatives: Effects of enol ether structures (pages 1334–1343)

      Yasushi Ishido, Arihiro Kanazawa, Shokyoku Kanaoka and Sadahito Aoshima

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27122

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      Various enol ethers were used as comonomers to reveal the effects of substituents at C[DOUBLE BOND]C bonds on cationic alternating copolymerizations with benzaldehyde derivatives. Among α-methyl, β-methyl, and β,β-dimethyl vinyl ethers (VEs) in addition to cyclic enol ethers used, β-monosubstituted monomers, including cyclic compounds, successfully induced (controlled) alternating copolymerization. In contrast, α-methyl and β,β-dimethyl VEs induced VE homopolymerization and/or cyclotrimerization. Improved thermal properties and degradabilities with high selectivities of product alternating copolymers were also demonstrated.

    14. Living and stereoselective polymerization of rac-lactide by bimetallic aluminum Schiff-Base complexes (pages 1344–1352)

      Zhi Qu, Ranlong Duan, Xuan Pang, Bo Gao, Xiang Li, Zhaohui Tang, Xianhong Wang and Xuesi Chen

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27123

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      Living and stereoselective polymerization of rac-lactide by bimetallic aluminum Schiff-base complexes has been studied. Bimetallic aluminum Schiff-base complexes have been prepared and investigated as catalysts for lactide polymerization to give isotactic enriched polylactide.

    15. Activation of stable polymeric esters by using organo-activated acyl transfer reactions (pages 1353–1358)

      Ryohei Kakuchi, Kwanjira Wongsanoh, Voravee P. Hoven and Patrick Theato

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27124

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      Facile activations of stable polymeric esters such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are demonstrated by using a newly developed organo-activation method. Even PMMA showed fairly high reactivity toward amines in the presence of organo-activators comprising of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) and 1,2,4-triazole (TZ).

    16. High-Tg and low-dielectric epoxy thermosets based on a propargyl ether-containing phosphinated benzoxazine (pages 1359–1367)

      Ching Hsuan Lin, Chu Ming Huang, Tung I. Wong, Hou Chien Chang, Tzong Yuan Juang and Wen Chiung Su

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pola.27125

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      A propargyl ether-containing benzoxazine was prepared and used as an epoxy curing agent. Epoxy thermosets cured by benzoxazine possess half the amount of highly polar hydroxyl groups than those based on a phenolic OH-containing benzoxazine derivative, leading to low dielectric characteristic. The double-strand structure in the benzoxazine-cured epoxy thermosets lead to high-Tg characteristic.

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