Strategies for controlling the active layer morphologies in OPVs



This review focuses on the recent developments in our understanding of active layer morphologies for organic photovoltaic cells and approaches to obtain active layer morphologies for high power conversion efficiencies. The evolution of active layer morphologies, as studied by high resolution electron microscopy, X-ray and neutron scattering, and dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry, is covered, along with strategies including the use of small molecule additives, polymer nanowires and polymer nanoparticles to realize active layer morphologies. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys, 2012