Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics

Cover image for Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics

Special Issue: Deformation, Yield and Fracture of Polymers

15 December 2012

Volume 50, Issue 24

Pages i–ii, 1663–1781

  1. Cover Image

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Image
    3. Editorial
    4. Full Papers
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      Cover Image, Volume 50, Issue 24 (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/polb.23217

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      The cover depicts an as-spun high-performance polymer foil of a thermotropic copolyester, known under the trade name Vectra, viewed between crossed polarizers, as presented on page 1713 by Jérôme Lefèvre, Kirill Feldman, Jan Giesbrecht, Paul Smith, Theo A. Tervoort, and Han E. H. Meijer. The high degree of uniaxial orientation, evidenced by the birefringent image, is due to the application of a simple air-gap-filament-fusionextrusion process (“foil spintrusion”) with the use of a newly developed die, and results in a mechanical performance of the foils (modulus 60 GPa, strength 1 GPa) that is comparable with those of commercially produced fibers of the same material.

  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Image
    3. Editorial
    4. Full Papers
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      Deformation, yield and fracture of polymers (page 1663)

      Gregory B. McKenna and Leon E. Govaert

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/polb.23208

  3. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Image
    3. Editorial
    4. Full Papers
    1. Micromechanics of semicrystalline polymers: Yield kinetics and long-term failure (pages 1664–1679)

      Amin Sedighiamiri, Leon E. Govaert, Marc J.W. Kanters and Johannes A.W. van Dommelen

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/polb.23136

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      A micromechanical model is used to establish a quantitative relation between the microstructure and mechanical performance of semicrystalline polymers. The model describes the material as an aggregate of two-phase composite inclusions, consisting of crystalline lamellae and amorphous layers. To predict the thermorheologically complex short-term and long-term failure, the kinetics at the microscopic level are evaluated and extended by adding a temperature shift function and a non-Schmid effect. The creep behavior of polyethylene is then simulated, predicting the time-to-failure, controlled by plastic deformation.

    2. Rate- and temperature-dependent strain hardening of polycarbonate (pages 1680–1693)

      D. J. A. Senden, S. Krop, J. A. W. van Dommelen and L. E. Govaert

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/polb.23165

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      Modeling the mechanical response of glassy polymers up to large deformations is vital for solid-state forming processes such as hydrostatic extrusion, hot drawing and injection molding, and the modeling of thin film and contact mechanics, such as indentation and scratching. Here, the viscous contribution to strain hardening of glassy polymers is quantitatively modeled. The model is tested on polycarbonate and provides an accurate description of experimental data across a wide range of strains, strain rates, and temperatures.

    3. Bead-spring models of entangled polymer melts: Comparison of hard-core and soft-core potentials (pages 1694–1698)

      Yelena R. Sliozberg, Timothy W. Sirk, John K. Brennan and Jan W. Andzelm

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/polb.23175

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      The dynamics of high-molecular-weight polymers above the glass transition temperature is dominated by topological constraints or entanglements. In this article, two bead-spring models of flexible entangled polymer melts, the excluded volume Kremer–Grest (KG) model and the modified segmental repulsive potential (mSRP) combined with a weakly repulsive potential, are compared. The findings show that systems using the mSRP polymer model require half the number of particles and relax four times faster compared to the KG polymer model.

    4. Interactions of cartilage extracellular matrix macromolecules (pages 1699–1705)

      Ferenc Horkay

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/polb.23191

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      Knowledge of the interactions between the components of cartilage extracellular matrix is essential to understand biological function and to develop successful tissue engineering strategies for cartilage repair. It is demonstrated that the osmotic swelling pressure that defines the load bearing ability of cartilage is governed by the main macromolecular components (aggrecan and collagen) of the extracellular matrix. In addition the structural organization and interactions between cartilage polymers are revealed by scattering techniques including small-angle neutron scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering and dynamic light scattering.

    5. Axisymmetric peel test for adhesion measurement of polymer coatings (pages 1706–1712)

      Garret C. DeNolf, Larry Haack, Joe Holubka, Ann Straccia, Kay Blohowiak, Chris Broadbent and Kenneth R. Shull

      Article first published online: 1 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/polb.23195

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      In the study of adhesion of polymeric protective coatings, various quantitative methods are used which vary in the way stresses responsible for debonding are applied. In this work, a novel axisymmetric peel geometry enables adhesion to be quantified for coatings that are cured in contact with any surface of interest. This technique overcomes the limitations of blister tests, which requires specialized substrates to be used for the application of an applied pressure.

    6. “Foil spintrusion” of high-performance polymer films (pages 1713–1727)

      Jérôme Lefèvre, Kirill Feldman, Jan Giesbrecht, Paul Smith, Theo A. Tervoort and Han E. H. Meijer

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/polb.23203

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This article describes the development of high-performance polymer foils by direct orientation in the liquid-crystalline phase of a thermotropic copolyester, known under the trade name Vectra. Application of a simple air-gap-filament-fusion-extrusion process (“foil spintrusion”) with the use of a newly developed die, results in highly oriented free-standing foils, as thin as 3 μm. These foils have a mechanical performance that is comparable with those of commercially produced fibers of the same material.

    7. Deformation and orientation in filled rubbers on the nano- and microscale studied by X-ray scattering (pages 1728–1732)

      Karsten Brüning, Konrad Schneider and Gert Heinrich

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/polb.23148

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      By the use of geometrically simple model fillers, this study sheds light on the reinforcement mechanism in filled rubbers. Using in situ ultra small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) during deformation and a physically motivated model, the orientation of the filler particles during uniaxial deformation is quantitatively analyzed. An attempt was made to complement this information with the local strain in the matrix by taking advantage of the strain-induced crystallization in natural rubber as a morphological strain indicator.

    8. Atomic mobility in strained glassy polymers: The role of fold catastrophes on the potential energy surface (pages 1733–1739)

      Yongchul G. Chung and Daniel J. Lacks

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/polb.23166

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      The deformation of a disordered material enhances the atomic mobility. Here, it is shown that one mechanism for the mobility enhancement is due to a fold catastrophe of the potential energy surface. This is demonstrated by showing that the lowest normal mode frequency follows the well-known scaling law upon approach to the critical strain where the fold catastrophe occurs. Furthermore, it is shown that the displacements following fold catastrophes quantitatively explain the enhanced mobility observed in molecular dynamics simulations.

    9. Fracture behavior of amorphous and semicrystalline blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (pages 1740–1747)

      Lucien Laiarinandrasana, Yannick Nziakou and Jean Louis Halary

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/polb.23188

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      Materials with various contents of poly(vinylidene fluoride) enable amorphous to semicrystalline blends to be obtained. Blends exhibit two fracture modes: amorphous phase regime driven by (TtestTg) and crystalline phase consistent with the index of crystallinity of the blend. Efficiency of the blending effects is maximum for poly(vinylidene fluoride) content varying from 50 to 80%.

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      A toolbox for parameter-free predictions of solid-state properties of monodisperse glassy polymers with frozen-in molecular orientation (pages 1748–1756)

      Davide S. A. De Focatiis and C. Paul Buckley

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/polb.23196

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      A toolbox that allows designers to predict the properties of oriented glassy polymers using only existing material constants is constructed from a constitutive model applicable to both polymer solids and polymer melts. Two solid-state properties of practical engineering interest are considered: optical birefringence and craze initiation stress. Predictions from the toolbox are compared to new experimental measurements on well-characterized grades of monodisperse polystyrene, and confirm that the toolbox can account for the effect of polymer molecular weight.

    11. Rate- and temperature-dependent strain softening in solid polymers (pages 1757–1771)

      Lambert C. A. van Breemen, Tom A. P. Engels, Edwin T. J. Klompen, Dirk J. A. Senden and Leon E. Govaert

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/polb.23199

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      Understanding the fundamental causes leading to structural failure of polymers and creating quantitative predictive modeling tools for failure is highly relevant in the design and optimization of reliable load-bearing polymer components. Here, it is shown that the post-yield softening drop of several polymers shows a rate-dependent response. This rate dependence is the direct result of the contribution of a secondary relaxation mechanism to the stress respones, and three distinct regions in strain rate or temperature can be defined.

    12. Shear modulus determination in model hydrogels by means of elongated magnetic nanoprobes (pages 1772–1781)

      Lisa Roeder, Philipp Bender, Andreas Tschöpe, Rainer Birringer and Annette M. Schmidt

      Article first published online: 1 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/polb.23202

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      The mechanical characterization of complex soft matter by quasi-static magnetometry using nanoscopic magnetic probes is demonstrated for model hydrogels doped with elongated magnetic nanoparticles. By extending the Stoner–Wohlfarth model for single-domain magnetic particles by a term for particle rotation in an elastic matrix, information on the shear modulus of the matrix is obtained. Comparison with the expected relation from rubber elasticity theory illustrates both the general potential as well as the limits of the approach.

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