• 1
    Fallowfield LJ, Hall A, Maguire GP, Baum M. Psychological outcomes of different treatment policies in women with early breast cancer outside a clinical trial. BMJ 1990;301:575580.
  • 2
    Goldberg JA, Scott RN, Davidson PM et al. Psychological morbidity in the first year after breast surgery. Eur J Surg Oncol 1992;18:327331.
  • 3
    Kissane DW, Clarke DM, Ikin J et al. Psychological morbidity and quality of life in Australian women with early stage breast cancer: a cross-sectional survey. Med J Austr 1998;169:192196.
  • 4
    Omne-Ponten M, Holmberg L, Burns T, Adami HO, Bergstrom R. Determinants of the psycho-social outcome after operation for breast cancer. Results of a prospective comparative interview study following mastectomy and breast conservation. Eur J Cancer 1992;28A(6/7):10621067.
  • 5
    Pistrang N, Barker C. The partner relationship in psychological response to breast cancer. Soc Sci Med 1995;40(6):789797.
  • 6
    Roberts CS, Cox CE, Shannon, VJ, Wells NL. A closer look at social support as a moderator of stress in breast cancer. Health Soc Work 1994;19(3):157164.
  • 7
    Bandura A. Self-efficacy towards a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol Rev 1977;84:191215.
  • 8
    Bandura A. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. Freeman: New York, 1997.
  • 9
    Arora NA, Johnson P, Gustafson DH, McTaish F, Hawkins RP, Pingree S. Barriers to information access, perceived health competence, and psychosocial health outcomes: test of a mediation model in a breast cancer sample. Patient Educ Counsel 2002;47:3746.
  • 10
    Beckham JC, Burker EJ, Lytle BL, Feldman ME, Costakis MJ. Self-efficacy and adjustment in cancer patients. Behav Med 1997;23:138142.
  • 11
    Cunningham AJ, Lookwood GA, Cunningham JA. A relationship between perceived self-efficacy and quality of life in cancer patients. Patient Educ Counsel 1991;17:7178.
  • 12
    Graves KD. Social cognitive theory and cancer patients' quality of life: a meta-analysis of psychosocial intervention components. Health Psychol 2003;22:210219.
  • 13
    Hirai K, Suzuki Y, Tsuneto S, Ikenaga M, Hosaka T, Kashiwagi T. A structural model of the relationships among self-efficacy, psychological adjustment and physical condition in Japanese advanced cancer patients. Psycho-Oncol;11:221229.
  • 14
    Lev EL, Paul D, Owen SV. Age, self-efficacy and change in patients' adjustment to cancer. Cancer Pract 1999;7:170176.
  • 15
    Lev El, Daley KM, Conner NE, Reith M, Fernanadez C, Owen SV. An intervention to increase quality of life and self-care self-efficacy and decrease symptoms in breast cancer patients. Schol Inq Nurs Pract 2001;15:277294.
  • 16
    Meluzzi TV, Nairn RC, Hedge K, Sanchez MAM, Dunn L. Self efficacy for coping with cancer: revision of the cancer behavior inventory (version 2.0). Psycho-Oncology 2001;10:206217.
  • 17
    Groenvold M, Petersen MA, Idler I et al. Levels of psychological distress in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients predicts survival. Psycho-Oncology 2004;13:184, S87, S1–233.
  • 18
    Lam WWT, Fielding R, Chan M, Chow L, Or A. Gambling with your life: the process of breast cancer treatment decision making in Chinese women. Psycho-Oncology 2005;14:115.
  • 19
    Stanton AL, Estes MA, Estes NC, Cameron CL, Danoff-Burg S, Iriving LM. Treatment decision making and adjustment to breast cancer: a longitudinal study. J Consul Clin Psychol 1998;66:313322.
  • 20
    Fallowfield LJ, Maguire HP, Baum M, A'Hern RP. A question of choice: results of a prospective 3-year follow-up study of women with breast cancer. Breast 1994;3:202208.
  • 21
    Lam WWT. Studies of the process of breast cancer treatment decision making and its impacts on short-term adjustment to breast cancer in Chinese women. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2002.
  • 22
    Schwarzer R. Measurement of Self-efficacy: Psychometric Scales for Cross-cultural research. NFER-Nelson: Windsor, 1993.
  • 23
    Cheung SK, Sun SYK. Assessment of optimistic self-beliefs: further validation of the Chinese version of the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Psychol Rep 1999;85(3, Part 2 [special issue]):12211224.
  • 24
    Schwarzer R, Born A, Iwawaki S, Lee YM. The assessment of optimistic self-beliefs: comparison of the Chinese, Indonesian, Japanese, and Korean versions of the General Self-Efficacy scale. Psychol: Int J Psychol Orient 1997;40(1):113.
  • 25
    Cheng TA, Williams P. The design and development of a use in community studies of mental disorders in Taiwan. Psychol Med 1986;16:415422.
  • 26
    Goldberg DP. The detection of Psychiatric Illness by Questionnaire: Maudsley Monographs No. 21. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1972.
  • 27
    Goldberg DP. Manual of the General Health Questionnaire NFER-Nelson: Windsor, 1978.
  • 28
    Chong MY, Wilkinson G. Validation of 30- and 12-item versions of the Chinese Health Questionniare (CHQ) in patients admitted for general health screening. Psychol Med 1989;19:495505.
  • 29
    Fielding R, Lam WWT. Measuring social impacts of breast cancer treatment in Chinese women. The Chinese Social Adjustment Scale. Cancer 2004;100:25002511.
  • 30
    Lai JCL, Cheung H, Lee WM, Yu H. The utility of the revised life orientation test to measure optimism among Hong Kong Chinese. Int. J. Psychol 1998;33:4556.
  • 31
    Lai JCL, Yue XD. Measuring optimism in Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese with the revised Life Orientation Test. Personal Individ Diffs 2000;28:781796.
  • 32
    Scheier MF, Carver CS, Bridges MW. Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery and self-esteem): a reevluation of the Life Orientation Test. J Per Soc Psycho 1994;67:19631978.
  • 33
    Lam WWT, Fielding R. The evolving experience of illness for Chinese women with breast cancer: a qualitative study. Psycho-Oncol;12:127140.
  • 34
    Munro BH, Page EB. Statistical Methods For Health Care Research (2nd edn). Lippincott: Philidelphia, 1993.
  • 35
    Pedhazur EJ. Multiple Regression in Behavioral Research (2nd edn). Holt, Reinhard & Winston: New York, 1982.
  • 36
    Manne SL, Ostroff JS, Norton TR, Fox K, Granna G, Goldstein L. Cancer-specific self-efficacy and psychosocial and functional adaptation to early stage breast cancer. Ann Behav Med 2006;31(2):145154.
  • 37
    Merluzzi TV, Martinez SM. Assessment of self-efficacy and coping with cancer: development and validation of the Cancer Behavior Inventory. Heath Psychol 1997;16:163170.