Caregiving Consequences Inventory: a measure for evaluating caregiving consequences from the bereaved family member's perspective

Authors

  • Makiko Sanjo,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Adult Nursing/Palliative Care Nursing, School of Health Sciences and Nursing, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    • Department of Adult Nursing/Palliative Care Nursing, School of Health Sciences and Nursing, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
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  • Tatsuya Morita,

    1. Department of Palliative and Supportive Care, Palliative Care Team and Seirei Hospice, Seirei Mikatahara Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan
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  • Mitsunori Miyashita,

    1. Department of Adult Nursing/Palliative Care Nursing, School of Health Sciences and Nursing, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Mariko Shiozaki,

    1. Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Sciences and Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
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  • Kazuki Sato,

    1. Department of Adult Nursing/Palliative Care Nursing, School of Health Sciences and Nursing, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Kei Hirai,

    1. Center of the Study for Communication Design, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Graduate School of Human Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
    2. Department of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
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  • Yasuo Shima,

    1. Department of Palliative Medicine, Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Ibaraki, Japan
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  • Yosuke Uchitomi

    1. Psycho-Oncology Division, Research Center for Innovative Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba, Japan
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Abstract

Objective: The aims of this study were to validate an instrument for measuring bereaved family members' perceptions of caregiving consequences and to examine the association between caregiving consequences and psychological distress.

Methods: Cross-sectional questionnaires were administered to family members of patients who had died in regional cancer centers. We measured the Caregiving Consequences Inventory (CCI), respondent's optimism, overall reward scale, and psychological distress and collected background data. A retest was conducted.

Results: Bereaved families from two regional cancer centers were surveyed (N=189 and 109; effective response rate, 57 and 80%). By exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, we identified four perceived reward domains: ‘mastery’, ‘appreciation for others’, ‘meaning in life’, and ‘reprioritization’, and one perceived burden domain. Although the four reward domains were highly correlated with each other (0.47<r<0.69), the 4-domain model was superior. The respondents with less education, strong faith, and less optimism reported fewer perceived rewards, thus demonstrating known group validity. In addition, perceived reward had little or no correlation with psychological distress. The psychometric properties of this scale were good (α=0.78–0.93, ICC=0.60–0.73) and construct validity was supported (GFI=0.929; AGFI=0.819; CFI=0.749; RMSEA=0.097).

Conclusions: The CCI is valid for measuring caregiving consequences from the bereaved family member's perspective in Japan. Furthermore, it is important to use perceived rewards and burdens as a measure of caregiving consequences for improving the quality of the caregiving and bereavement experience. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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