Factor structure of the Beck Hopelessness Scale in individuals with advanced cancer

Authors

  • Rinat Nissim,

    Corresponding author
    1. Behavioural Sciences and Health Research Division, Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada
    • Behavioural Sciences and Health Research Division, Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5G 2C4
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  • David B. Flora,

    1. Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Canada
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  • Robert A. Cribbie,

    1. Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Canada
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  • Camilla Zimmermann,

    1. Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    2. Department of Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada
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  • Lucia Gagliese,

    1. Behavioural Sciences and Health Research Division, Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada
    2. Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Canada
    3. Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
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  • Gary Rodin

    1. Behavioural Sciences and Health Research Division, Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada
    2. Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    3. Department of Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada
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Abstract

Objective: Although the Beck Hopelessness Scale is often used with the seriously ill, its factor structure has been given relatively little consideration in this context.

Methods: The factor structure of this scale was examined in a sample of 406 ambulatory patients with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer, using a sequential exploratory-confirmatory factor analysis procedure.

Results: A two-factor model was consistent with the data: The first factor reflected a negative outlook and was labeled ‘negative expectations’; the second factor identified a sense of resignation and was labeled ‘loss of motivation.’

Conclusions: Implications regarding scoring of the scale in this population are discussed, as are implications of the two-factor structure for our understanding of hopelessness in individuals with advanced cancer. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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