• adjustment;
  • cancer;
  • breast cancer;
  • factor structure;
  • Mini-MAC;
  • oncology


Objective: The object of the study was to examine the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC) among a large sample of Norwegian breast cancer patients.

Methods: A total of 402 patients with breast cancer completed the Mini-MAC.

Results: Principal component analysis with varimax rotion confirmed four factors. Three had psychometric properties to the original Mini-MAC Helpless-Hopeless (HH), Anxious Preoccupation (AP) and Cognitive Avoidance (CA) subscales. The fourth, named Positive Attitude (PA) combined the Fighting Spirit (FS) and the Fatalism subscales of the original Mini-MAC. Construct validities were assessed by examining the interscale correlations as well as the correlations between the Mini-MAC subscales and the HADS subscales scores. Internal consistency of the five subscales was satisfactory for the original (HH, AP, CA, FA, coefficients=0.60-0.83), except for the FS subscale (coefficient=21).

Conclusion: In view of the low internal reliability for the Norwegian Mini-MAC FS subscale coefficient; it appears to be more appropriate to use the Norwegian Mini-MAC as a four-factor model. If researcher or clinicians in Norway use the five-factor model, they should take great care when interpreting the fighting spirit subscale. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.