Carbon nanowalls (CNWs) are self-assembled, free-standing, few-layered graphenenano-structures with large surface area, and thin graphene edges. For their application to nanobiotechnology, the effects of chemisorbed species on surface wettability were investigated. The surfaces of as-grown CNWs obtained using CH4/H2 mixture were hydrophilic. After Ar atmospheric pressure plasma treatments for up to 30 s, the contact angles of water droplets on the CNWs decreased from 51° to 5°, owing to a result of oxidation only at edges and surface defects. They increased up to 147° by CF4 plasma treatment at low pressure. The wide-range control of surface wettability of CNWs was realized by post-growth plasma treatments. We also demonstrated detection of bovine serum albumin using surface-modified CNWs as electrodes.